The second and active summit crater of Gorely, with a boiling and acid green lake seen from SW. (photo: Marco Fulle)
Gorely volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in southern Kamchatka and located 75 km SW of Petropavlovsk. It is a complex of several overlapping stratovolcanoes with many summit and flank craters. Activity in historic times were mainly small to medium-sized ash and steam eruptions.
Stratovolcano (caldera) Schwache Aktivität oder Ausbruchswarnung
1821 (?), 1828, 1832, 1855, 1869, 1929-30, 1930-31, 1931, 1932 (?), 1947, 1961, June 1980 - July 81, Aug 1984- Sep 86, June 2010 (?)
Explosive, often water-magma interaction. Formation of crater lakes and lahars (mud flows).
The large Gorely volcano has a very complex structure: The edifice fills a large 9 x 13.5 km caldera occupied by 3 closely spaced overlapping stratovolcanoes with 11 summit craters and more than 30 flank craters. The lavas of Gorely are mainly basalt and basaltic andesite and the volcano developed along a WNW-ESE line within the caldera. It is cut by 3 rift zones. Some of the craters contain acid or freshwater crater lakes.
The caldera formed after a giant plinian eruption that produced about 100 cubic miles of tephraabout 38,000-40,000 years ago.
Historic activity of Gorely volcano can be traced since the 19th century. 4 explosive eruptions from summit craters occured in 1828, 1832, 1855, and 1869. The first historic eruptions in 1929-30 produced several strong eruptions which ejected ash and larger fragments of rock, and ash plumes that reached the Pacific coast, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, and the village of Nachiki at 150 km from the volcano.
In the 20th century, seven eruptions occured in 1929, 1930, 1931, 1947, 1961, 1980-1981, and 1984-1986. During the last 1984-1986 eruption, the ash plumes reached 3.5 km height and a crater was formed that is now filled with a lake.
Kirsanov, I. T. & I. V. Melekestsev (1991). Gorely volcano. in Active volcanoes of Kamchatka. S. A. Fedotov and Y. P. Masurenkov eds. Moscow, Nauka. 2: 294-315.
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