Jebel al-Tair ("bird mountain") volcano is the northernmost active volcano rising above sea level on the rift axis of the south-central part of the Red Sea.
Its western spelling varies from Jebel at Tair to Jebel al Tair, Djebel Teyr, Jabal al Tayr,, Jibbel Tir and other variants.
Jebel al Tair's activity is mainly effusive, but explosive eruptions or explosive phases at the beginning of effusive eruptions occur as well and have produced ash and pumice layers. The first historically recorded eruptions were explosive eruptions (which are easier to detect) in the 18th century. Jebel al Tair's last eruption was in 2007-2008 and killed 8 soldiers and destroyed a military base on the island.
The tholeiitic basaltic strato-/ shieldvolcano is a single volcano that rises from a depth of 1200 and forms an elliptical 3 km long island. Numerous young lava flows erupted from its steep-walled half-open summit crater Djebel Duchan and from radial fissures. Young lava flows cover most of the island .Jebel al-Tair is a single volcanic edifice composed of basalt lava.
An older part of the volcano is visible at a circular steep sea cliff draped by young basalt lavas which extend to form a coastal plain.
Cinder cones are located along the NW and southern coasts, and fumarolic activity occurs from two uneroded scoria cones at the summit.
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