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It may be a bit too early to be sure to declare the eruption ended, because pauses in eruptive activity are not uncommon. On the other hand, activity had been showing a decreasing trend over the past weeks, and it would be no surprises if it actually did end now. [less]
The lava flow at Fogo between Monte Beco and Monte Saia cones on 21 Jan (OVCV)
Mild intermittent explosive activity continues at the volcano accompanied by effusive activity. A new lava flow, smaller than the ones in the first weeks, but still well alimented, has been active in the Cha caldera over the past days and advanced slowly approx. 1500 m west-southwest passing between Monte Beco and Monte Saia cones.
The same flow front, developed as pahoehoe, on 28 Jan (OVCV)
The eruption still continues although most of the time visible activity is very low and restricted to degassing. Minor lava effusion and sporadic flares of strombolian activity of mild to moderate size occur from time to time. ...more
Scientists from the Cabo Verde volcano observatory (OVCV) who climbed the volcano on 25 January observed small ash emissions, and published a detailed report about the most recent significant activity during 20-23 January, when explosions produced a short-lived ash plume that rose up to 1200 meters on the morning of 20 Jan, as well as a small lava flow on the following day. [less]
Mild strombolian explosion from Fogo on 21 Jan (image: OVCV)
Mild explosive activity continues from the vent, at least intermittently, but there is no longer significant lava effusion. According to local observers, the eruption continues to decline overall and might be ending in a near future. ...more
Works have started to reopen the road into the caldera to reach Ilheu de Losna and Portela/Bangaeira. [less]
The eruption seems to be coming to an end. There are no new reports of lava effusion or explosive activity at the vents since 8 January, when small strombolian explosions could still be observed. ...more
Gas emission measurements show a clear decreasing trend as well, but it is still too early to declare the end of the eruption because the possibility of a new batch of magma rising from depth cannot be ruled out yet. [less]
Activity continues, but overall the eruption has been decreasing and seems slowly to be coming to an end. ...more
Still, short bursts of explosive and effusive activity occur from the vents occasionally, producing ash plumes and short-lived lava flows. Yesterday, such an increase resulted in an ash plume reaching 1.5 km and a new 50 m long lava flow near the vents. Minor ash fall occurred on the city of Sao Felipe. The recently active western lava flow has apparently stopped by now, but during the past days managed to destroy the last remaining buildings in Ilhéu Losna. [less]
Map of the lava flow field 28 Dec 2014. (Copernicus / European Union)
The eruption continues at reduced pace. After slowing down, lava effusion and small explosive activity at the vents appear to have increased again on 31 Dec. The western lava flow remains active with its northern front advancing through farmland in the Cha caldera.
The eruption of Fogo volcano and the 3 lava flows (North, South and West), and the location of the destroyed settlements. (Images: Theo Montrond via Involcan / editing and annotations: Culture Volcan)
According to local press, volcanologist João Fonseca, responsible for volcanic monitoring and equipment maintenance at Fogo volcano, mentioned that volcanic activity shows signs of decreasing and that the eruption could be approaching its end. ...more
Still, the northern lobe of the recently active lava flow to the west remained active during the past days and smaller lobes advanced through more farm land in the Cova Tina area. [less]
Active lava flow in the Cova Tina area west of the vents on 20 Dec (Image: Abraão Barbosa Vicente, via AVCAN)
Lava effusion continues from the vents, while explosive activity there has more or less ended. ...more
Lava is fed through tubes to active breakouts at different locations inside the Cha caldera. One area with active breakouts remains the former locations of Portela-Bangaeira villages, where by now almost all buildings have disappeared. Another flow, particularly active in the past days, has been traveling to the west, towards the Cova Tina area, since early December. Meeting the caldera wall, it has now spit into two main lobes and advances over previous farmland. The most advanced front had a length of more than 2 km yesterday from the vents. [less]
The eruption continues its destructive work: the lava effusion from the vents remains at moderate intensity and feeds various active flows that spread in the Cha Caldera. ...more
While the foremost front that had destroyed Portela and Bangaeira two weeks ago is no longer active, several lateral breakouts continue to spread in the caldera. Whatever has so far been spared or only partially covered of buildings from the two villages, is being gradually covered by the flows. [less]
Lava cascade during the Fogo eruption (Dec 2014) (copyright: Martin Rietze)
It seems that after a short period of quietening down (9-14 December) the Fogo eruption has regained its strength. This confirms our earlier report of increased emission of sulphur dioxide thought to indicate the rise of a new magma batch. ...more
After nearly 20 years of inactivity, the Pico de Fogo awakened with a violent flank eruption on the 23rd of November 2014. In less than 4 weeks , this eruption has devastated local communities and caused a humanitarian crisis as it forced 1500 local people to flee and it is likely that another 2000 will have to move to temporary shelters. Media coverage of this natural disaster has so far been remarkably small despite the fact that it is Fogo’s largest volcanic eruption in decades, causing more damage to nearby settlements, and in a shorter time, than the 1995 eruption. [less]
MODIS hot spots at Fogo volcano during the past 2 days - note the strong decrease compared to the image for the past 7 days(MODVOLC, Univ. Hawaii)
Lava emission has slowed down a lot, sign the eruption could be over soon. ...more
For more than 5 days, no significant explosive activity and only minor lava effusion was observed at the vents. On the other hand, magmatic SO2 (sulfur dioxide) emissions remain high and even increased from 7,500 to 9,000 tons per day. That could mean that a new batch of magma is on the rise and lead to a rejuvenation of the volcanic activity. The next days will probably tell. The lava front stopped 600 m from what was once Bangaeira village, at 3.5 km distance from the next inhabited place, Fernao Gomes village, which could be at risk if the lava flows resume from there. On the other hand, if the old channels and tubes have now been blocked, which is likely the case due to lack of supply, new flows would need to re-start from the source and travel all the way to there first. In other hand, the threat to villages on the eastern coast now seems minimal.
MODIS hot spots at Fogo during the past 7 days (MODVOLC, Univ. Hawaii)
Map of Fogo's lava flow as of 10 Dec 2014 (Copernicus)
Volcanic activity continues, but the advance of the lava flows has slowed down to approx. 5 meters per hour and it seems that the effusion rate has diminished. ...more
The abundant presence of gases and ash in the area of the Cha das Caldeiras caldera promts authorities to maintain a total access restriction. By the afternoon of 10 Dec, the most advanced flow was approx. 600 m ENE of the rmeains of Bangaeira village. Whether or not it will reach the break in slope to the outer caldera flank and potentially reach the populated coastal area is impossible to predict. [less]
The lava flow of Fogo passing near a destroyed building (image: INVOLCAN / @involcan / twitter)
The second village Bangaeira in the path of the rapidly advancing lava flow has been destroyed within only a few hours. ...more
With 2 villages destroyed, more than 1700 people displaced and without some of their most valuable economic possession, farmland, this now 15 days old eruption is one of the worst volcanic disasters of the century. The history of 150 years of settlement in the Cha caldera is now under lava.
3D map of the caldera and the location of the lava flow (credit: CultureVolcan, copernicus.eu)
Lava flow from Fogo in Portela (Asociación Canaria de Volcanología / facebook)
The eruption intensified according to news reports on Saturday, and destroyed most of what still had been left of Portela. The new lava flow advanced at 30 meters per hour and consumed another 20 houses and the sports center. ...more
The flow is now headed towards Bangaeira village, which is threatened to suffer the same fate as Portela in a short time. Authorities ordered full evacuation of the area. One of the main access roads, only opened a few days ago, was also destroyed again by the lava flows, making the evacuation of people and remaining goods difficult.
Sketch of the new lava flow on GoogleEarth (GeoVol / facebook)
The vents at Fogo volcano and the new lava flow near its source (image: GeoVol)
The eruption continues. A new lava flow that appeared last night is heading again towards the village of Portela, which it might hit in less than 2 days. ...more
At the eruptive fissure, 3 vents seem to still be active and explosive activity has decreased a lot. The eruption continues to be dominated by lava effusion. The large flow that covered part of Portela during the past days stopped yesterday, probably caused by a temporary (?) drop in effusion rate which in turn lead to the clogging of the tube that alimented it. [less]
The eruption continues. Lava flows have slowed down their advance to less than 1 m per hour, giving some time to breath for what is left at Portela village in Chã das Caldeiras. ...more
So far, the lava flows have destroyed approx. 50% of the village, 57 houses (37 of which yesterday) including the headquarters of the Parque Natural do Fogo, a school, hotel, 51 tanks, various agricultural buildings and a significant area, about 30 hectares of farmland. The following video by INVOLCAN shows the strong strombolian activity at the vent: [less]
Destruction of houses in Portela this morning. (Fogo News)
Activity remained similar to the previous days although some sources suggest a decrease in lava effusion, but an increase in explosions at the vents. ...more
Several more houses have been burnt and destroyed by the advancing lava flows in Portela village. A SO2 plume is drifting south from Fogo and can be seen on satellite imagery. It reaches an altitude of approx. 9,000 ft (3 km), and has the potential to create acid rain. Gas and dust concentrations in the southern part of the island have been high enough to cause health problems (breathing disorders, vomiting, dizziness, headaches etc).
The eruptive vents at Fogo this morning (MuzikaTV)
Although explosive activity has decreased at the vents, it seems that lava effusion picked up. The advance of some of the lava flow fronts in Portela village picked up again this morning, reaching 20 meters per hour. Local sources mention that seismic activity also increased. ...more
If no changes occur, it seems that within a few days, the whole village of Portela could become a victim of the lava flows. Evacuation of remaining goods from the still standing, threatened buildings continue. Most of the Nature Park has by now been covered by lava. The Park's Headquarters building, already damaged by lava flows and looting earlier on in the eruption, has now been completely destroyed.
Screenshot of eruption video showing the two active vents at Fogo
Activity, after having slowed down a bit yesterday, picked up again this morning, as a new vent opened above the eruption fissure. ...more
Lava fountaining and associated lava effusion mainly occur from the lower vent, while the upper one shows strombolian explosions, strong degassing and ash emissions. As typical for flank eruptions, eruptive activity has by now concentrated to and continues from two vents (as compared to 6 active ones on the first day):
Lava flow in Portela village (Fogonews)
Panorama of Portela village and the lava flow (Fogonews)
Explosive activity at the eruptive vents of Fogo on 25 Nov 2014 (MuzikaTV)
The eruption continues, but the situation is critical inside the Cha caldera. The northern lava flow branch has started to enter the village of Portela and today destroyed and/or damaged several buildings, including the headquarters of the Fogo Nature Park. ...more
The village, located at the northern end of the main road inside the caldera, is at risk of being cut of by lava flows: If the main road becomes covered, only a difficult and long passage to the NE via Monte Velha remains as land evacuation route.
Lava flow approaching Portela village (MuzikaTV)
Lava flow touches the Nature Park headquarters building (MuzikaTV)
The recent eruption of the Pico do Fogo continues to produce lava fountains from two vents on the volcano's flank. The erupted lava collects in rapidly growing flows that destroy roads and houses near the caldera, as shown in the new BBC footage below. ...more
Fortunately, this new eruption has not yet made any casualties, but many locals are forced to abandon there homes and move to houses constructed for the refugees of the 1995 eruption or to newly constructed temporary shelter. A large ash plume can be seen from Praia, the capital of Cape Verde on one of the neighbouring islands. The eruption also caused the closure of the local airport. [less]
Lava fountains and flow from the new eruption at Fogo (Fogonews)
The new eruption, so far small inside the Cha caldera, continues. It is taking place from a fissure with two closely spaced vents on the southwest side of the Pico de Fogo, very near to the 1995 eruption vents. ...more
The upper vent produces ash, the lower one feeds lava fountains (or continuous strombolian activity) and several 'a'a lava flows. One of the lava flows quickly cut the main road through the caldera, but no other major damage has been reported. A SO2 plume mixed with some ash is visible on satellite data in distances of up to 150-200 km from Fogo.
Ash plume from Fogo (HOTVOLC / OPGC-LMV / Culture Volcan)
Lava flow from Fogo cutting the road in the caldera (Fogonews)
A new eruption started at the volcano this morning around 10:00 local time. The aviation alert was raised to red due to possible ash emissions that could harm aircraft in the area. ...more
Not much detail about the eruption is so far available, but a strong thermal anomaly was detected on satellite data, suggesting the presence of lava at the vent, perhaps in the form of lava fountains. Typical eruptions of Fogo start with lava fountains / strombolian activity that build a new cone, followed by lava flow effusion. According to news articles, strong precursory seismic activity since yesterday night caused many people to sleep outside their houses. Approx. 1000 people have been evacuated from the Fogo caldera. [less]
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