Mendeleev volcanMendeleev (Rausu-dake in Japanese) is a low stratovolcano on Kunashir Island in the southern Kurile Islands, 40 km from Hokkiado in Northern Japan. The volcano is composed of 3 nested calderas measuring 6x9 km (the oldest caldera), 3x3.5 km, and 1x1 km (youngest caldera).
A large sub-aerial eruption occurred during the formation of the youngest 1x1 km
caldera. It was followed by the growth of an extrusive lava dome 2550 ± 40 years ago. The effusive activity continued for several centuries.
Mendeleev volcano contains a shallow magma chamber at 4.5 km depth and a deep magma source at a depth of 30-60 km.
Introduction:Mendeleev volcano is dominantly andesitic-dacitic in composition. A central cone formed inside the younger caldera and was breached to the west by a large debris avalanche about 4200 years ago. A lava dome that grew inside the avalanche scarp forms the 888 m high point of the volcano.
Additional lava domes in the northern part of the older caldera are considered to represent flank activity of the younger caldera. The only unambiguous historical eruption was a small phreatic explosion in 1880. 4 solfatara fields lie at the eastern and northern flanks of the central cone, and the Goriachy Pliazh geothermal field is located outside the caldera along the eastern coast.
- Mendeleev volcano information from GVP
- Abdurakhmanov et al (2004) "MENDELEEV VOLCANO: HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT AND RECENT STATE (KUNASHIR ISL., KURILE ISLANDS)", IV International Biennial Workshop on Subduction Processes emphasizing the Japan-Kurile-Kamchatka-Aleutian Arcs, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, August 21-27, 2004, web.ru/conf/kamchatka_2004
2000 seismic swarm
Earthquake swarms occurred at Mendeleev volcano in the summer of 2000. The earthquakes were less than 20 km deep.
1990 increased fumarolic activity
In 1990, activity in the NW fumarolic field of Mendeleev volcano increased. Molten sulphur was observed at the upper basic fumarole. A new thermal area was observed as well as an increase of temperatures of other hot springs.
1987 earthquake swarm
An earthquake swarm at 10 km depth occurred at Mendeleev volcano during 4-5 May 1987. In the same month, a small steam-gas emission occurred in the NE fumarole field.
1984 temperature increase
In 1984, temperatures of the Revushchaya fumarole reached 130 deg C and produced a flow of molten sulphur.
1978 fumarole activity
On 15 August 1978 the temperature of the Spokoiny fumarole in the NW field increased to 113 deg C and was accompanied by the appearance of molten sulphur.
1977 earthquake swarm
In February-April 1977, a seismic swarm with more than 200 earthquakes occurred at Mendeleev volcano.
The earthquakes were caused by drilling at Goryachy Plyazh geothermal field. In late August 1977, harmonic emissions of steam-and-gas plumes which reached up to 150-200 m height occurred at the NE fumarole field.
In 1946, local inhabitants near Mendeleev heard a roar produced by escaping hot gases and steam from the NE fumarole field.
Thundering noises were reported from Mendeleev volcano in 1901, indicating a possible eruption.
A small phreatic explosion happened at Mendeleev volcano in 1880 from the NE fumarolic field.
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