The caldera was formed during an eruptive period with six major explosive eruptions producing at least 280 cu km of ejecta between about 560,000 and 350,000 years ago. Subsequent eruptions occurred from a new 5-km-wide central cone and from many phreatomagmatic craters and cones within the Artemisio-Tuscolana caldera and on its outer flanks. The post-caldera eruptions have buried the western side of the caldera rim. The largest of the post-caldera craters is Lake Albano, a 4 x 2.5 km wide maar constructed at the WSW margin of the caldera in 5 stages dating back to about 45,000 years ago. Eruptive products of the 3rd stage were dated at 26,000 yrs Before Present (BP). The 4th and 5th stages were not dated directly, but sediment-core gaps at 16,000 and 7500 yrs BP may correspond to these eruptions (Villa et al., 1999). Reported historical eruptions during the Roman period are uncertain, but seismic swarms of up to two years duration have been recorded since Roman times.
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