Chirip volcano is a twin volcano forming the Chirip peninsula which streches NW into the Okhotsk Sea from central Iturup Island, Kurile Island, 230 km north of Hokkaido, Japan.
The 2 stratovolcanoes are Chirip volcano in the N and Bogdan Khmelnitskii to the S. They overly an older volcanic edifice. The lavas erupted from both volcanoes are dominantly basaltic, which is unusual for subduction zone volcanoes.
Only 2 historic eruptions are known. The last eruption in 1860 occurred from a vent SE of the summit of Bogdan Khmelnitskii volcano. -> See whole entry
Chirpoi volcano forms a small island in the central Kurile Islands, Russia. It has a 8-9 km wide partially submerged caldera with several volcanic centers inside the caldera, including active Snow and Cerny volcanoes. The southern caldera rim emerges again on nearby Brat Chirpoey Island 2.5 km SE of Chirpoi. -> See whole entry
Chokai volcano (鳥海山 Chōkai-san) is the largest volcano of NE Honshu.
It is a massive stratovolcano with a broad conical profile which is why it is called locally Akita-Fuji or Dewa-Fuji. Its height measures from the WNW elongated 15x20 km base about 2000 m.
The volcano is located about 60 km west behind the main volcanic front of the Honshu arc and towers above the Japan Sea.
Chokai consists of 2 overlapping volcanoes, the western and older volcano Nishi-Chokai and the younger eastern volcano Higashi-Chokai, forming the 2 distinct peaks. Historic records of eruptions, mostly phreatic explosions, go back to the 6th century AD. -> See whole entry
Cinnamon Butte is one of a group of 3 young cinder cones long a WNW-ESE line immediately west of the Cascade crest and NE of Diamond Lake in Oregon, USA. The other two cones are Thirsty Point and Kelsay Point. -> See whole entry
Clear Lake volcanic field lies in the northern Coast Ranges, California, ca. 135 km north of San Francisco. The volcanic field consists of lava dome complexes, cinder cones, and maars of basaltic-to-rhyolitic composition. Mount Konocti, a dacitic lava dome on the south shore of Clear Lake, is the largest volcanic feature.
The area has intense gethermal activity, caused by a large, still hot silicic magma chamber about 14 km wide and 7 km beneath the surface. It provides the heat source for the Geysers, the world's largest producing geothermal field on the SW side of the volcanic field. Its geothermal power plants can generate approximately 2000 megawatts, enough to power two cities the size of San Francisco.
The latest volcanic activity happened about 10,000 years ago and formed maars and cinder cones along the shores of Clear Lake, the larges natural freshwater lake in California. Volcanism around Clear Lake is related to the complex San Andreas transform fault system. -> See whole entry
The beautifully symmetrical Mount Cleveland stratovolcano forms the western half of the uninhabited Chuginadak Island in the eastern Aleutians, connected to the eastern half of the island by a narrow isthmus. It is one of the regions most active volcanoes, but at present has no seismic network. Monitoring of its activity is largely based on satellite observation. -> See whole entry
Coatepeque volcano is a large 7 x 10 km wide caldera 50 km west of San Salvador city. The caldera is elongated in SE-NW direction, with walls rising up to 800 m above the floor in its southwestern part. An up to 120 m deep and 5 km diameter lake occupies the eastern part of the caldera.
Hot springs occur near the lake shores, but there are no certain historical eruptions from Coatepeque. -> See whole entry
Colachi volcano is a stratovolcano in northern Chile. Th youngest lava flows were erupted probably less than 10,000 years ago and cover an area of 7 sq km area on the saddle between Colachi and the neighboring volcano Acamarachi.
Coleman Seamount volcano is a submarine volcano in the western Solomon Islands discovered in 1985 by the Hawaiian "Moana Wave" research vessel during a November 1985 to January 1986 cruise. -> See whole entry
Comondú-La Purísima volcano is a volcanic field of about 9000 sq km in southern Baja California, west of the Sierra de la Giganta.
Volcanic activity of La Purısima dates back about 10 million years ago, but might have continued into the Holocene (i.e. less than 10,000 years ago), as some of the cinder cones and blocky lava flows, in the area between Comondú and the La Purísima river, have preserved a very fresh morphology. -> See whole entry
Concepción volcano is a steep symmetrical stratovolcano with a perfect shape and one of the most active volcanoes of Nicaragua. During the past 100 years, it has been in a near-constant state of small to medium ash explosions at irregular intervals.
Together with its neighbor Madera volcano Concepción forms the NW half of the dumbbell-shaped island of Ometepe in Lake Nicaragua. Both volcanoes are connected by a narrow isthmus.
Frequent explosive eruptions during the past decades have increased the height of its summit significantly (more than 100 m) and outdated the existing topographic maps. Because of the frequent ash eruptions, the upper half of the summit cone lacks vegetation.
The basaltic-to-dacitic Concepción volcano contains a steep-walled 250 m summit crater with a higher western rim. Flank vents are aligned on N-S-trending fractures and contain chains of spatter cones, cinder cones, lava domes, and maars on the NW, NE, SE, and southern sides. Some of these vents are found down to Lake Nicaragua. -> See whole entry
Conchagua volcano (also known as Cochague) is an eroded stratovolcano on the western side of the Gulf of Fonseca in at the southeastern tip of El Salvador.
The main summit of Conchagua is Cerro del Ocote, but the secondary summit Cerro de La Bandera to the ENE of the elongated volcanic edifice seems to be younger.
It is uncertain whether the volcano should be considered still active, but it has certainly not erupted for a long time. There is fumarolic activity on some spots of both peaks. -> See whole entry
Conchagüita volcano at the SE tip of El Salvador forms a small 4-km-wide island in the Gulf of Fonseca separated from Conchagua volcano across a narrow strait.
The volcano is a sharp-topped cone with a 100-m-wide summit crater at the southern end and contains a young lava delta that forms a peninsula on the island's eastern side.
A crescent-shaped crater open to the west is located at the northern end of the island. The only known historic activity from Conchagüita volcano were small ash emissions in 1892.
Cook volcano is an alleged active submarine volcano in the Western Solomons, whose existence is questionable and not accepted by Smithsonian's Global Volcanism database, although it is listed as one of the 4 active volcanoes (Savo, Kavachi, Cook and Tinakula) of the Solomon Islands in the 1957 "Catalogue
of the Active Volcanoes of the World" by Fischer. These
are Savo, Kavachi, Cook and Tinakula. . Possible eruptions of the Cook volcano occurred in 1964 and 1991, and were reported by Australian navy. -> See whole entry
Copahue volcano is an active stratovolcano in central Chile at the border with Argentina. The volcano has a 6.5 x 8.5 km wide caldera with several craters aligned on a 2 km ENE-WSW trending zone.
The eastern summit crater has an acid 300 m wide crater lake known as El Agrio or Del Agrio which has intense hydrothermal activity.
Infrequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions occurred in historic time. Eruptions in the last century have ejected pyroclastic rocks and chilled liquid sulfur fragments. The last one was in 2000. -> See whole entry
Copiapo volcano is an andesitic to dacitic stratovolcano in the Atacama province of northern Chile, close to Nevado Tres Cruces National Park and Laguna del Negro Francisco.
Most of the volcano's edifice is several hundreds of thousands to millions years old, and Copiapo might be extinct although there is still solfataric activity.
The volcano contains 8 andesitic cinder cones located primarily on the SE flank. The most recent cone is Volcán San Román 7 km north of Copiapó.
Corcovado volcano is an isolated and little studied stratovolcano in southern Chile. Its only known historic activity was in 1834 and/or 1835. C. Darwin described seing it in activity in 1834 and an explosive eruption was reported to have occurred in November 1835 by a resident from Chiloe, 60 km west of the volcano.
Corcovado is ice-covered and basaltic to basaltic-andesite in composition. It has several young (Holocene) cinder cones on its flanks, which are likely the source of its recent eruptions.
Cordón de Puntas Negras is a stratovolcano in northern Chile 46 km SE of Lascar volcano.
The volcano has a number of fresh-looking cones and craters such as Cerros Cenizas, Aguas Calientes, Laguna Escondida, and Chinchilla with well-preserved summit craters and short lava flows. In addition, there is a distinct maar and a large, 13 sq km silicic lava flow and dome complex.
It is thought that some of these vents are less than 10,000 years old, or even historical in age. The youngest of the complex is a crater SE of Cerro Laguna Escondidax. -> See whole entry
Cordón del Azufre is a small volcanic complex on the Argentina/Chile border. The volcano consists of a cluster of lava flows from a row of vents on the NW (Argentinian) side, and a 5 km long chain of vents along the border with Chile.
Note: there is a volcano with a similar name Cerro del Azufre in Northern Chile. -> See whole entry
Coronado volcano is a small stratovolcano in the Gulf of California. It forms a 2 km wide peninsula at the northern tip of Coronado Island, 3 km off the eastern coast of Baja California in the Canal de los Ballenas.
The roughly 440-m-high volcano contains a 300 x 160 m wide crater. Little is known about Volcán Coronado and it is unknown when it last erupted. Fumarolic activity was reported in September 1539.
Nevado Coropuna volcano in southern Peru is the largest and highest active volcano in Peru. It rises majestically 4500 m from the surrounding terrain and forms an 10x20 km E-W elongated complex.
The massive ice-covered complex has at least 6 summit cones. The flanks of the volcano are characterized by deep canyons.
There have been no recorded eruptions and the age of the last eruption is unknown, but there is solfataric activity suggesting that the volcano might still be active.
Cosigüina (or Cosegüina) volcano in western Nicaragua forms a large peninsula into the Gulf of Fonseca. The last eruption of the volcano was in 1959, but periods of unrest have occurred in recent years and in 1835, it produced the largest known historic eruption in Nicaragua.
The basaltic to andesitic volcano has a concentric structure consisting of the remnants of an large older cone, which collapsed more than 10,000 years ago and left a crescent-shaped somma rim on the outside. In the old caldera, a young cone has been built and is itself truncated by an elliptical 2.4 x 2 km wide and 500 m deep caldera. The young caldera crater contains a beautiful lake.
Most deposits inside the caldera are from lava flows, while ash and pumice layers predominate the outer flanks.
The Coso volcanic field is located east of the Sierra Nevada Range at the western edge of the Basin and Range province, California. It consists of 38 old rhyolitic lava domes and basaltic cinder cones covering a 400 sq km area. volcano is located 200 km north of Los Angeles, California.
Eruptions in this area over the past 4 million years produced 35 km3 of lava, the youngest eruptions are probably from the basaltic Volcano Peak cinder cone and occurred more than 33,000 years ago.
Coso Geothermal System
There is geothermal activity in an ENE trending zone between Sugarloaf Mountain and the Coso Hot Springs. The Coso Hot Springs have fumaroles and intermittently active geysers. Fumaroles at Devils Kitchen and the adjacent Nicol area are located in an explosion crater surrounding a rhyolite lava dome. -> See whole entry
Cotopaxi is one of South America's most famous volcanoes and one of its most active ones. With its 5911 m it also ranks among the world's highest active volcanoes (26th highest).
The majestic, snow covered symmetrical stratovolcano is located on the Eastern Cordillera of the Ecuadorian Andes, 60 km south of Quito and 35 km northeast of Latacunga.
Cotopaxi's steep cone has nested summit craters, the outer of which measures 550 x 800 m in diameter.
Cotopaxi erupted more than 50 times since 1738. The most violent historical eruptions of Cotopaxi volcano were in 1744, 1768, 1877, and 1904. its eruptions often produced pyroclastic flows and destructive mud flows (lahars). Some lahars have travelled more than 100 km and reached the Pacific to the west and the Amazon Basin to the east.
At the moment, it has been dormant for over 70 years, which is an unusual long interval in its recent history. -> See whole entry
Crater Basalt is a volcanic field of 9 cinder cones in the northern Patagonia region of southern Argentina 130 km SE of San Carlos de Bariloche.
The volcanic field covers an area of 700 sq km, and consists of cinder and spatter cones with many overlapping blocky basalt lava flows. -> See whole entry
Crater Lake in the southern Cascade Range of Oregon, USA, is one of the most beautiful calderas in the world. It formed by the collapse of a massive stratovolcano known as Mount Mazama about 6850 years ago. The caldera measures 8x10 km in diameter and is filled with a lake of up to 600 m depth.
A small island, Wizzard Island, is a cinder cone that grew after the formation of the caldera. The caldera is part of Crater Lake National Park. -> See whole entry
Crater Mountain volcano is a curved volcanic chain of 3000 m and higher peaks located in the highlands of New Guinea. The volcanoes are deeply eroded, but there are young flows covering the steep-sided valleys to the north and east, which might be of Holocene age. The easternmost Agotu Valley contains several small craters, cinder cones, and maars.
Crater Mountain is part of the 2700 km2 Crater Mountain Wildlife Management Area, known for its spectacular scenery and traditional villages.
The Craters of the Moon are located at the NW end of the largest lava field of the Snake River Plain in Idaho, USA. The volcanic field contains over 60 lava flows, 25 cinder cones up to 250-m high, and 8 eruptive fissure systems, and covers an area of 1600 km2.
The Craters of the Moon formed in 8 eruptive periods each lasting several hundred years, and separated by quiescence intervals of up to 3000 years. The eruptions began about 15,000 years ago, and ended with the most recent (so far) eruptions only 2100 years ago. In contrast to the Craters of the Moon, most other lava fields in the Snake River Plain formed during single, short eruptions.
On average, lava output rate was 1.5 cubic km/1000 years for the period 15,000 to 7,000 years ago and increased to 2.8 cubic km /1000 years for the interval from 7,000 to 2,000 years ago. -> See whole entry
Crow Lagoon is a little-known volcanic center located north of Prince Rupert, British Columbia, Canada. There are thick layers of basaltic scoria from eruptions less than 10,000 years old.
Crow Lagoon is one of the top 10 volcanoes in Canada with recent seismic activity. The others include: Castle Rock, Mount Edziza volcanic complex, Mount Cayley, Hoodoo Mountain, The Volcano, Mount Silverthrone, Mount Meager, Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and Mount Garibaldi.
In chemistry, mineralogy, and materials science, a crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. -> See whole entry
Cu-Lao Re volcano is a group of 4 basaltic sub-aerial and 9 submarine volcanic cones 150 km off the coast of central Vietnam.
3 of the subaerial cones form Cù-Lao Ré Island, and the fourth forms Cù-Lao Bo Bai Island.
Cuernos de Negros (also known as Magaso) is a large stratovolcano complex located in SE Negros Island, Philippines, near the city of Dumaguete. It is unknown when it has erupted after since the last radiocarbon-dated activity about 14,000 years ago. At present, it still has active fumaroles at the highest crater of Magaso, sulphuric springs at the ESE flanks and hot springs on the NE flank.
An increase in fumarolic activity was observed after (and probably triggered by) a major tectonic earthquake in 1902.
The Palinpinon geothermal field is located south of the Okoy River on the north side of the volcano. -> See whole entry
Cuernos del Diablo volcano is a partially glacially eroded basaltic stratovolcano in southern Chile. The volcano has been frequently active in the Holocene (within the past 11,700 years) and produced flank cones and erupted basaltic lava flows. Most eruptions took place from vents on the SW flank and from the summit to the NW base of the volcano.
There are no historically recorded eruptions, but it is possible that the volcano has been active in the past centuries.
Fumaroles were observed on a flank cone in 1931.
Cuicocha volcano is a beautiful caldera in northern Ecuador 100 km north of Quito. The volcano has a 3 km wide lake filled caldera and sits at the feet of the sharp-peaked (extinct) Cotacachi stratovolcano.
There are gas emissions from several locations in the caldera lake at present indicating the volcano is still active. -> See whole entry
Cumbal volcano is an active glacier-capped stratovolcano in SW Colombia, located 25 km SW of Azufral volcano and 5.5 km NE of the town of Cumbal - Pueblo.
Cumbal is the southernmost active volcano of Colombia that has erupted in historic times.
A young lava dome occupies the 250-m-wide summit crater, and eruptions from the upper east flank produced a 6-km-long lava field. Thermal springs occur on the SE flanks. -> See whole entry
Dacht-i-Navar volcano is a group of 15 lava domes in west-central Afghanistan SW of Kabul.
Their age is unknown, but it is speculated that they have erupted less than 10,000 years ago and should be considered potentially active.
The lava domes are trachyandesitic in composition and located along the southern margin of Dacht-i-Navar.
Daikoku is a sumbarine volcano with a conical summit in the Japanese Volcano Islands chain. It sits on an elongated E-W-trending ridge SE of Eifuku submarine volcano and rises to within 323 m of the sea surface. It has a crater with a black pool of liquid sulfur discovered in 2006.
Daikoku submarine volcano is one of about a dozen submarine volcanoes displaying hydrothermal activity in the southern part of the Izu-Marianas chain. -> See whole entry
Daisetsu (also spelled Taisetsu) volcano is a group of 8 stratovolcanoes, lava domes and a small 2 km wide caldera in the Daisetsu-zan National Park (the roof of Hokkaido) in central Hokkaido.
Asahi (旭岳 Asahi-dake) volcano is the highest peak of the volcanic complex and the highest mountain in Hokkaido.
No historical eruptions are known from Daisetsu, although the last eruption must have taken place in or after 1739 AD. At present, there are fumaroles and sulfur was mined at Asahi-dake.
Daisetsu-zan National Park is the largest national park of Japan covering 230,000 ha. The park stretches from Mt. Torashiumu to the Tokachi Mountains. It is known for its hot springs, which can be found at Sounkyou, Yukomanbetsu, Tenninkyou, Nukabira, Shirogane, Shikaribetsu and Tomuraushi. -> See whole entry
Dakataua volcano is a large caldera on the northern end of Willaumez Peninsula, New Britain. The elliptical caldera, 13.5 km E-W and 10.5 km N-S, is one of New Britain's most impressive volcanoes. The caldera contains the 12 km wide horseshoe-shaped Lake Dakataua which is at only 50 m above sea level.
The Dakataua caldera formed during probably several Plinian eruptions. The last one occurred about 1150 years ago, and was followed by at least 5 subplinian to vulcanian explosions.
The highest point of the volcanic complex is Mt Makalia (350m), a small andesitic stratovolcano (or large cinder cone) that formed after the caldera. Together with other post-caldera cones and explosion craters aligned on a N-S line, they form a large peninsula of the lake. The last activity from the volcano was from Makalia in the lat 19th century.
At present, there is fumarolic activity occurs at the summit of Makalia and warm springs are found in the lake at the base of the mountain. -> See whole entry
The Dallol volcano, or rather the Dallol hydrothermal field is located in a remote part of the northern Danakil Depression in NE Ethiopia. It is the lowest known sub-aerial volcanic area in the world.
Dallol is one of the world's most spectacular landscape: a vast area of uplifted thick salt deposits affected by intense fumarolic activity, probably caused by an active volcanic system beneath several kilometers of evaporation salt deposits.
Dallol is said to be the hottest place on the planet, with average annual temperatures well above 30 deg C.
The area commonly referred to Dallol volcano contains the approx. 1.5 x 3 km wide Dallol "mountain" (rising about 50 m above the great salt lake) near the border with Eritrea, and nearby warm springs including the Yellow Lake, the Black Mountain with the Blue Lake, said to be an explosion crater from a hydrothermal eruption in 1926.
Dallol is famous for its hot brine, and multicolored white, pink, red, yellow, green, gray and black salt deposits, hot springs and miniature geysers. These bizarre structures form in a complex interaction of solution and recrystallization processes driven by hydrothermal waters and rapid evaporation. -> See whole entry
Damavand volcano is a majestic stratovolcano located 70 km NE of Tehran and 70 km south of the Caspian Sea. Mt Damavand is the highest peak in the Middle East and the second highest volcano in Asia (after Kunlun volcano in Tibet).
Damavand last erupted about 7,300 years ago. There are no historical eruptions, but fumaroles at the summit crater suggest that the volcano is still active. -> See whole entry
The Danau caldera at the western end of Java Island belongs to the Gunung Karang volcano. It was formed in Pleistocene (+- 2,5 mil. years ago). 10000 years ago two andesitic to basaltic volcanoes erupted and built up a stratovolcano until 1778m altitude (Karang volcano). Some active hydrothermal systems with hot springs are the today´s last sign of activity. -> See whole entry
Copyrights:VolcanoDiscovery. Use of material: Text and images on this webpage are copyrighted. Further reproduction and use without authorization is not consented. If you need licensing rights for photographs, for example for publications and commercial use, please contact us.