Iwaki volcano is a large symmetrical stratovolcano and the NW-most active volcano in Honshu, Japan. Because of its shape, it has been called the Fuji-san of the Tsugaru district.
Iwaki contains a 2-km-wide summit crater which is filled by a lava dome flanked by 6explosion craters. 3 lava domes are found on the western and southern flanks of the andesitic volcano. Historical eruptions have been reported at Iwaki since 1600 AD and have consisted primarily of small-to-moderate phreatic explosions.
Iwate volcano is a symmetrical stratovolcano in northern Honshu, Japan, 20 km northwest of Morioka City.
It consists of 2 cones, the older western Nishi-Iwate and the younger eastern summit Higashi-Iwate. The older volcano to the west is truncated by a caldera that resulted from repeated collapse.
The caldera contains a central cone with a 500 m wide crater containing a lake and is breached by a narrow gorge to the NW.
Volcanic activity migrated to the east and built Yakushi-dake, the young, mainly basaltic summit cone of Higashi-Iwate. Yakushi-dake contains a 500 m wide crater and partly buries the eastern rim of the caldera. It is the vent of most recent activity including a lava flow from the eruption in 1732 that traveled down the NE flank.
The last historic activity was a small phreatic eruption from O-jigokudani on the W side of the Onigajo caldera. The eruption caused mudflows.
There are uncertain reports about activity in July 1934. -> See whole entry
Ioto (硫黄島, also known as Iwo-jima) volcano is a triangular-shaped, flat, 8 km long and up to 4.5 wide volcanic island stretching NE-SW. It is surrounded by steep cliffs under the sea, which belong to a 9-km-wide submarine caldera. The volcano is located 1250 km south of Tokyo in the central Volcano Islands of the Izu-Marianas arc.
The summit of Iwo-jima is Suribachi-yama at 160 m.
Parts of the caldera have been experiencing remarkably strong uplift (up to more than 1 meter per year and averaging 25 cm / year over several centuries). There is strong hydrothermal activity at present, at fumaroles along a NE-SW zone cutting through Moto-yama. Many phreatic eruptions occurred in historic times, mostly from vents on the west and NW sides of the island.
Iwo-jima was the site of an infamous WWII battle, and the location of a famous image of the raised US flag. -> See whole entry
Iwo-Tori-shima volcano (also known as Okinawa-Tori-shima), forms a small 1x2,7 km island located north of the largest island of the Ryukyus, Okinawa.
Records of historical eruptions dating back to 1664 have consisted of mild-to-moderate explosive activity. Iwo-dake, the volcano forming the NW part of the island, has a small lake, solfataras, and sulfur deposits that were mined in the past.
The name part Tori-shima ("Bird Island") is common for small offshore islands in Japan. -> See whole entry
Iya volcano in central Flores is the southernmost of a group of 3 volcanoes (Iya, Rooia and Pui) forming a small peninsula south of the city of Ende. Rooja and Pui cones to the north appear to be older than Iya and have no known historic activity.
Many small eruptions have occurred at Iya volcano in historic times.
Iyang-Argapura twin volcano is a massive complex in East Java, Indonesia, 25 km NW of the university town of Jember. It dominates the landscape between Raung and Lamongan volcanoes.
It is still considered active, although no eruptions seem to have occurred within the past 500 years at least, and the volcanic complex shows signs of heavy erosion.
Steep valleys and erosion cliffs of up to 1000 m depth cut the base of the older Iyang volcano. The volcano's construction followed a N-S rift-like trend, with overlapping craters and cones forming on this line.
At present, there are only fumaroles in Iyang crater as sign of activity. Uncertain reports might indicate an eruption 1597.
Izalco volcano was born in 1770 and is the youngest volcano in El Slavador. It formed on the southern flank of Santa Ana volcano located 45 km NW of San Salvador city.
Frequent strombolian eruptions and sometimes lava flows have built a largely unvegetated cone 650 m high which contains a 250 m wide and 50 m deep summit crater.
Volcán Izalco was frequently active between 1770 and 1966, but has been in its longest repose interval of its short history since then.
Similarly to Stromboli volcano in Italy, it acquired the nickname of "El Faro", the "Lighthouse of the Pacific", because of its frequent strombolian eruptions that provided a natural night-time beacon beacon for ships.
Izalco is one of the most frequently active volcanoes in North and Central America. -> See whole entry
Iztaccíhuatl volcano (also spelled Ixtaccíhuatl) is a massive andesitic stratovolcano next to the famous neighbor Popocatépetl volcano. It is the 3rd highest mountain of Mexico.
Iztaccíhuatl has the profile of a sleeping woman when seen from the Valley of Mexico, which gave it its name meaning "Woman in White", referring also to the Ayoloco glacier covering its summit. Geologically, it is the predecessor volcano of Popocatépetl and now in its final stages of infrequent activity, with some activity sometime less than 11,000 years ago. -> See whole entry
Izu-Tobu volcano is a group of volcanic vents with cinder cones, lava flows, domes and tephra deposits on the NE Izu peninsula 80 km SW of Tokyo.
The Izu-Tobu volcanic group covers an area of 400 sq km and contains many submarine volcanoes offshore of the peninsula. Most of its erupted magmas are basalt, and a smaller volume is andesite.
Ito city is the largest town (ca. 70,000 inhabitants) located in the volcanic field. It is known for its hot springs and resorts.
The latest eruption of Izu-Tobu volcano was in 1989, when a small submarine crater formed NE of Ito City. -> See whole entry
Jabal Haylan volcano is a 75 km long chain of volcanic vents, cinder cones and lava flows, located about 70 km east of Yemen's capital Sana'a.
The latest eruption from Jabal Haylan must have occurred less than about 3000 years ago. -> See whole entry
Jabal Yar volcano is a small volcanic field, the southernmost of Saudi Arabia, located along the Red Sea coast close to the border with Yemen.
The field contains 3 groups of volcanoes, Qummatain, Djar'atain-Harra and 'Ukwatain. Hot springs occur south of Djar'atain and between Djar'atain and 'Ukwatain.
The only documented historic eruption from Jabal Yar took place around 1810.
Jailolo stratovolcano is in the center of a volcanic complex forming a peninsula west of Jailolo Bay on the western coast of Halmahera Island. Jailolo stratovolcano has not erupted in historic times, but there are young lava flows on the eastern flank. -> See whole entry
Jaraguay volcano is a volcanic field located between Jaraguay and Arroyo San José on the western side of Baja California, Mexico. It contains cinder cones and associated basaltic and basaltic-andesite lava flows, some of which are probably less than about 5000 years old. -> See whole entry
Jebel al-Tair ("bird mountain") volcano is the northernmost active volcano rising above sea level on the rift axis of the south-central part of the Red Sea.
Its western spelling varies from Jebel at Tair to Jebel al Tair, Djebel Teyr, Jabal al Tayr,, Jibbel Tir and other variants.
Jebel al Tair's activity is mainly effusive, but explosive eruptions or explosive phases at the beginning of effusive eruptions occur as well and have produced ash and pumice layers. The first historically recorded eruptions were explosive eruptions (which are easier to detect) in the 18th century. Jebel al Tair's last eruption was in 2007-2008 and killed 8 soldiers and destroyed a military base on the island. -> See whole entry
Jebel Zubair volcano is a shield volcano forming the island of the same name in the Red Sea. Measuring 5 km in length, it is the largest of a group of 10 small volcanic islands and shoals known as the Zubair archipelago, which includes the Zubair, Centre Peak, Saba, and Haycock islands.
A new eruption in Dec 2011 was first reported on 19 Dec 2011. The eruption lasted until mid January 2012 and produced a new island immediately NW of Rugged Island. -> See whole entry
Mt Jefferson volcano, one of the lesser known Cascade volcanoes, is the second highest mountain in Oregon. Although it is deeply eroded and has probably not erupted for at least about 1000 years, it is still considered active. -> See whole entry
Jingbo volcano (also known as Cingpo, Ching-pe, Chingpohu, or Jingbohu) is a young volcanic field in the Jingbo (or Jingpo) Lake area in NE China about 80 km SW of Mudanjiang city. The area is also known as the "Crater Forest" and "Frog Pool" areas.
The volcanic field contains cones and lava flows on top of plateaus above the Mudan River (Mudanjiang). The scenic Jingbohu lake ("Mirror Lake"), a major tourist attraction in the region, formed when lava flows blocked the Mudan River. -> See whole entry
Jolo volcano is a group of young cinder cones and explosion craters on the 60-km-wide Jolo Island located off the Zamboanga Peninsula on SW Mindanao Island in the southern Philippines 190 km NE of Sabah, Malaysia.
It is part of the Sulu arc and contains several young volcanic vents, including Mt. Dakula near Lake Panamo, the probably youngest cone of the island, Tumatangus volcano, at 811 m the highest point of the island, Bud Dajo (or Buddajo), a young basaltic cinder cone (620 m), and the cones of Matanding, Guimba, and Sungal.
Although not much sign of activity was detected during a survey in 1990, the last volcanic activity probably took place as recently as in 1897, when a submarine eruption accompanied by a tsunami was reported on 21 September. This activity most likely took place al Lake Seit, where a still active solfatara is found.
Hot springs also occur at the craters on Cagayan Sulu.
A reported eruption in 1641 most likely was the eruption of Parker volcano on Mindanao instead. -> See whole entry
Jordan Craters in SE Oregon is a field of well-preserved basaltic lava flows and scoria cones covering 250 sq km. The last eruption took place at Coffeepot Crater at the NW end of the lava field about 3200 years ago and produced a lava flow covering 75 square km and containing 1.6 km3 of olivine-bearing basaltic pahoehoe lava. The flows dammed local river valley, forming the two small Upper and Lower Cow Lakes at the SE end of the lava field.
Jordan Craters is known for its excellent exposures of a wide variety of lava flow features similar to Idaho's Snake River Plain to the east. -> See whole entry
Kadovar volcano forms the tiny 2 km wide Kadovar Island, one of the Schouten Islands. It is located 25 km north of the mouth of the Sepik River on New Guinea.
The island is the submerged peak of a stratovolcano at the western end of the 1000 km long Bismarck volcanic arc.
Kadovar contains a 1 km wide breached crater, and the village of Gewai is perched on the crater rim. There are no certain eruptions in historic time, but an increase in thermal activity occurred in 1976. -> See whole entry
Kaikata Seamount is a basaltic-to-dacitic submarine volcano north of Kaitoku Seamount in the Japanese Volcano Islands. Kaitaka mountain rises 2350 m from the sea floor to within 162 m of the sea surface. It has 2 major summit peaks oriented NE-SW, with the SW peak being the highest. Hydrothermal activity was observed in 1988 at a depth of 460 m, and the volcano was reclassified as active by the Japan Meteorological Agency.
Kaikohe-Bay of Islands volcano is a volcanic field at the upper end of the Northland Peninsula about 190 km NNW of Auckland. It contains about 30 craters and vents, mainly basaltic cinder cones, small shield volcanoes and lava plateaus.
The last eruptions occurred about 1500 years ago and formed the 4 well-preserved scoria cones and lava flows at Te Puke. Hot springs occur at 3 locations, including near Lake Omapere, which was dammed by lava flows. -> See whole entry
Kaitoku volcano (Kaitoku Kaizan) is a massive active seamount composed of 3 overlapping submarine volcanoes in the Japanese Volcano Islands chain, 130 km NW of Iwo-jima Island.
Its 3 peaks are 13-18 km apart and reach depths of 103 m (SW peak, also known as Nishi-Kaitokuba, West Kaitokuba), 353 m (SE peak, Higashi-Kaitokuba, East Kaitokuba), and 506 m (N peak).
Kalatungan volcano (also known as Catatungan), is the second highest volcano in the Philippines and located 47 km east of Lake Lana on Mindanao Island.
The dominantly basaltic volcano forms a broad E-W trending ridge. The age of its last activity is unknown.
Kana Keoki is an active submarine volcano in the Western Solomons, located 26 km SW of Rendova Island.
Studies from the 1960s have shown that the dacitic volcano is an active volcano, that forms a 3000 m high seamount on the Ghizo Ridge south of the plate margin between the Indo-Australian and Pacific plates.
Kanaga volcano is an active symmetrical stratovolcano rising 1300 m on the northern part of Kanaga Island in the western Aleutians, Alaska. It is one of the most southerly volcanoes of the central Aleutian chain.
The volcano has a small 200 m wide and 60 m deep circular summit crater with fumaroles inside the crater and around its rims. Historical eruptions have been recorded since 1763, but not in much detail due to the remoteness of the volcano. A new eruption might have started on 18 February 2012. -> See whole entry
The huge Karaca Dağ volcano is a 1957 m high basaltic shield volcano in SE-Turkey near the Syrian border. It is situated on the Arabian foreland and about 150 km of the boundary of the Anatolian plate. It has been active since the Pliocene and also in historic times eruptions occured on its east flank. -> See whole entry
Karai volcano is the highest volcano in the Sulu Range in north-central New Britain off Bangula Bay.
The Sulu Range consists of a cluster of partially overlapping small stratovolcanoes and lava domes.
There are no historic eruptions, but in 2006, a vigorous new fumarolic vent opened, preceded by vegetation die-off, seismic swarms and landslides. -> See whole entry
Gunung Karang volcano lies in westernmost Java near Pulosari volcano SE of the geologically young 15-km-wide Danau caldera. The eroded and forested stratovolcano of andesitic and basaltic composition is the highest of a group of stratovolcanoes in the Danau caldera area. -> See whole entry
Karangetang (Api Siau) volcano is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. Located on the remote Api Siau Island north of N Sulawesi, it is notorious for building lava domes and producing dangerous pyroclastic flows. -> See whole entry
Karkar volcano along with its neighbor Manam is one of Papua New Guinea's most active volcanoes. The volcano is located on Karkar Island off New Guinea's north coast 64 km north of Madang.
The forested Karkar Island is 25 km long and 19 km wide and cut by 2 nested summit calderas. The 5.5-km-wide outer caldera was formed during one or more eruptions, the last of which occurred 9000 years ago. The inner caldera is almost circular in shape and has 3.2 km in diameter with vertical walls up to 300 m high. It was formed during violent eruptions sometime between 1500 and 800 years ago.
The historic activity at Karkar volcano, recorded since 1643, consisted in small explosions including strombolian and phreatic eruptions. Most eruptions came from Bagiai vent, a cinder cone inside the inner caldera. -> See whole entry
Karpinsky volcano is a group of 3 young andesitic cones in southern Paramushir Island, Kuril Islands. The cones are located at the southern end of the Karpinsky Ridge.
The NW cone contains vigorous fumaroles. It has produced a lava flow that flowed 7 km to the SE. The southern cone forms the highest point of the Karpinsky massif. It fed lava flows to the SE and west. The NW cone displays hot springs and sulfur cones containing liquid sulfur that is occasionally ejected outward.
A minor ash eruption in 1952 was the only historical eruption of the Karpinsky group.
(Source: Smithsonian / GVP volcano information)
Karthala is a large shield volcano with a summit caldera on La Grande Island of the Comores in the eastern Indian Ocean. It erupts every few years and often produces voluminous lava flows and sometimes has a lava lake in the crater of the caldera. -> See whole entry
Karymsky is the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone and a perfect symmetrical stratovolcano. Ash eruptions from Karymski can come in the way of aircraft flight routes across the N Pacific. Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone in one of the world's volcanoes with persistent activity and has been erupting for at least about 500 years. -> See whole entry
Kasatochi is a remote island forming the peak of a mostly submerged stratovolcano rising to 314 m a.s.l. in the Aleutian island chain. It is one of the volcanoes in the world that formed new islands in historic times. -> See whole entry
Kasbek volcano is a large glacier-covered stratovolcano in the Caucasus Mountains of Georgia south of the border with Russia. It is the second highest volcano (after Elbrus) in the Caucasus range. There are no known historic eruptions, but radiocarbon-dated lava flows and its summit cone are only about 6000 years old, suggesting that the volcano is still active.
Kasuga volcano is a conical submarine volcano rising 3000 m from the ocean floor to a depth of 598 m, located SE of Fukujin submarine volcano in the Volcano Islands of Japan 1550 km SSE of Tokyo. It is the northernmost of 3 seamounts forming the Kasuga seamounts complex. The Kasuga complex lies in the northern part of a backarc basin west of the Mariana volcanic arc.
Floating pumice was seen south of the volcano location in 1959 and water discolouration above the seamount was reported in November 1975. -> See whole entry
A large stratovolcano in Alaska, near the Novarupta vent, that erupted in 1912 with the largest volcanic eruption in the 20th century, 10 times the size of the 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens. -> See whole entry
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