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The young basaltic lava fields of Western Arabia
Location of the Harrats in western Arabia
Location of the Harrats in western Arabia
The young volcanic fields of western Arabia (Harrats) are less than 10 million years old and not directly related to the Red Sea Rift.
These young volcanoes and lava-fields form a distinct 600 km long N-S chain (Makkah-Madinah-Nafud volcanic line) and the vents are aligned N-S, different from the NNW-SSE direction of the Red Sea Rift. It forms the axis of uplift of western Saudi Arabia.
Between Makkah and Madinah is the 20,000km2 Harrat Rahat lava field with 644 scoria cones, 36 shield volcanoes and 24 domes. Between Madinah and the Great Nafud are the coalesced harrats Khaybar, Ithnayn and Kura with an area of 20,560km2 and 327 scoria cones, 46 basaltic shield volcanoes, 20 domes, 5 tuff cones, one basaltic stratovolcano (Jebel Qidr) and 39 massive and very long "whale-back" lava flow. These the biggest and longest basalt flows in western Saudi Arabia and contain the biggest and most extensive lava-tubes.
The volcanoes represent a completely new N-S crustal rift that began forming only 10 million years ago in western Saudi Arabia. So in a few tens of millions of years there might be a new ocean forming along this line similar to the Red Sea.
from: The lava fields of Saudi Arabia and the formation of the Kishb lava tubes

Volcanoes of Saudi Arabia (10 volcanoes)

Al Harrah | Harrat ar Rahah | Harrat 'Uwayrid | Harrat Ithnayn | Harrat Lunayyir | Harrat Khaybar | Harrat Rahat | Harrat Kishb | Harrat al Birk | Jabal Yar
Saudi Arabia has active volcanoes in the west and northwest of the country. Volcanic activity is related to hot spot activity on the Arabian Plate which was uplifted on the eastern side of the Red Sea rift.
The basaltic lava fields in the western part of the country are called harrats. They cover about 180,000 square km and extend from Turkey to Yemen in the south.
Al Harrah
(volcanic field)
Al Harrah volcano is a large basaltic volcanic field in NW Saudi Arabia near the Jordanian border. It comprises 15,200 sq km of basalt lava flows and forms the southern third of the Harrat Ash Shamah volcanic field, which extends from Syria through Jordan into northern Saudi Arab... [more]

Harrat ar Rahah
(volcanic field)
Harrat ar Rahah is the northernmost of a series of young basaltic volcanic fields in western Saudi Arabia arranged parallel to the Red Sea. It is located south of the Plain of El-'Hisma, south of the town of Tabuk.
The field contains mainly large olivine-bearing basalt lava... [more]

Harrat 'Uwayrid
(volcanic field)
Harrat 'Uwayrid volcano is one of several basaltic volcanic fields in western Arabia, located 120 km east of the Red Sea. The field contains vast lava flows, scoria cones and tuff cones in a NW-SE aligned 125 km long area. To the NW, it joins with the Harrat ar Rahat volcanic fie... [more]

Harrat Ithnayn
(volcanic field)
Harrat Ithnayn volcano is volcanic field of 4000 sq km size in western Saudi Arabia north of the Harrat Khaybar volcanic field. It consists of various shield volcanoes and scoria cones, and contains large basalt flows with lava caves.
The youngest lava flows from Harrat Ith... [more]

Harrat Lunayyir
(volcanic field)
Harrat Lunayyir volcano is a volcanic field in western Saudi Arabia east of the Red Sea port of Umm Lajj. The basaltic field contains about 50 cinder cones and lava flows aligned N-S. Two of the lava flows have reached the Red Sea.
An eruption has probably occurred in the 1... [more]

Harrat Khaybar
(volcanic field)
A volcano of the Harrat Khaybar volcanic field (Photo: Paul Nicholson)Harrat Khaybar volcano one of Arabia's largest volcanic fields and covers more than 14,000 square km 65 km NE of Al Madinah (Medina) in western Saudi Arabia. It contains a 100 km long N-S oriented line of volcanic vents including scoria cones, lava domes, maars, basalt lava flows... [more]

Harrat Rahat
(volcanic field)
Harrat Rahat is Saudi Arabia's largest lava field and comprises an area of 20,000 sq km, extending for 300 km at an average width of 60 km south of the holy city of Al Madinah (Medina).
Historic eruptions have occurred near Medina, notably one in 1256 AD. [more]

Harrat Kishb
(volcanic field)
Harrat Kishb volcano is a 5900 sq km volcanic field in central Saudi Arabia, east of the other N-S-trending chain of Harrats.
The volcanic field contains basaltic scoria cones, tuff rings, maars, lava domes and lava flows. [more]

Harrat al Birk
(volcanic field)
Harrat al Birk volcano (also known as Harrat Hayil or Hubhub al Sheikh) is the only young volcanic field of Western Arabia located directly at the Red Sea coast, west of the town of Abha, and between the Tihamat ash Sham and Tihamat 'Asir coastal plains.
It consists of 180... [more]

Jabal Yar
(volcanic field)
Jabal Yar volcano is a small volcanic field, the southernmost of Saudi Arabia, located along the Red Sea coast close to the border with Yemen.
The field contains 3 groups of volcanoes, Qummatain, Djar'atain-Harra and 'Ukwatain. Hot springs occur south of Djar'atain and bet... [more]

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