The huge lava dome and strato-volcano is situated north of the famous lake Van.
A glacial ice cap covers the top of the lava dome. It is the second highest volcano of Turkey. During construction of the volcano andesitic-dacitic lava flows alternated with fluid basaltic flows, followed by construction of a large lava dome over the central vent. The flanks of the volcano are dotted with numerous lava domes and pyroclastic cones erupted along radial and circumferential fissures, particularly on the northern, souther, and eastern sides. The 1.5-km-wide, low-rimmed Aygirgölü maar was erupted on the lower southern flank. During the latest stage of activity, voluminous basaltic lava flows traveled as far as 30 km from the summit. Potassium-Argon dates for Süphan Dağ range from 2 to about 0.1 million years, but the latest basaltic eruption occurred about 10,000 years ago (Yilmaz et al., 1998).
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