Tindfjallajökull is one of the oldest Holocene volcanoes of the eastern volcanic zone of Iceland and has produced rocks of basaltic-to-rhyolitic composition.
Eruption of the rhyolitic and trachyandesitic Thorsmork ignimbrite accompanied formation of a 5-km-wide caldera during the Pleistocene. The NW rim of the caldera is topped by the Tindfjallajökull icecap. About a dozen small eruptions took place during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene, mostly from vents north and west of the caldera.
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