Location map of Italy's most active volcanoes (Etna, Stromboli, Vesuvius, Vulcano, Lipari, Campi Flegrei)
Vesuius volcano looming over the citiy of Naples and the Gulf of Naples
Vesuvius in eruption, August 1779. This eruption was produced a spectacular lava fountains rising several km above the summit, and devastating tephra falls northeast of the volcano. Note the large glowing bombs in the fallout! (Image from Alfano and Friedlaender, 1928, La storia del Vesuvio. Napoli: K Holm, 71p.)
Links and further information:
|Vesuvius Home / www.ov.ingv.it/index_eng.htm|
|English pages dedicated to Vesuvius volcano from the Osservatorio Vesuviano, INGV, Naples (the Vesuvius Volcano Observatory)|
|Vesuvio (Vesuvius) Volcano, Italy / boris.vulcanoetna.com/VESUVIO.html|
|Boris Behncke's phantastic pages about Vesuvius volcano. Contains lots of information about Vesuvius' activity, eruption style, monitoring information, references and further links.|
|Vesuvius & Campi Flegrei / www.educeth.ch/stromboli/perm/vesuv/index-en.html|
|A nice set of pages with info, historic drawings & paintings, recent photos, and excellent virtual climbs (from 1800, 1900, and 2001) from Stromboli Online.|
3 Jul 2013 (Vesuvius volcano and the city of Naples)
Typical eruption style
: Mainly explosive. I detail, Vesuvius has 4 typical types of eruptions:
(such as the 79 AD Pompeii eruption): extremely large explosive eruptions producing several to several tens of cubic km of magma in a very short time.
explosive eruptions (such as the 1631 eruption). They are similar in style, but smaller than true Plinian events.
3. Strombolian and Vulcanian eruptions
(several examples during the 1631-1944 period, e.g. 1906 and 1944). Such eruptions produce local heavy tephra falls, small pyroclastic flows, as well as large fire fountains and lava flows.
4. The smallest, but most frequent type of activity observed at Vesuvius is persistent Strombolian to Hawaiian-style activity
that prevailed during much of the period between 1631 and 1944. This activity is usually limited to the central crater, and sometimes to flank vents. Lava flows and lava fountains have been frequently observed during such periods of activity.
Vesuvius volcano eruptions
: 1796 - 1822, 1824 - 1834, 1835 - 1839, 1841 - 16 February 1850, 1854 - 1855, 1855 - 1861, 1864 - 1868, 1870 - 1872, 1875 - 1906, 1913 - 4 April 1944
Last earthquakes nearby:
View all recent quakes
|Time||Mag. / Depth||Distance||Location|
|Fri, 28 Feb|
|Fri, 28 Feb 00:20 UTC||M 0.5 / 0.2 km||1 km||Vesuvius area|
|Thu, 27 Feb|
|Thu, 27 Feb 19:16 UTC||M 2.1 / 2 km||21 km||SOUTHERN ITALY|
|Sat, 15 Feb|
|Sat, 15 Feb 06:00 UTC||M 0.1 / 7.2 km||7 km||Phlegrean Fields|
|Thu, 13 Feb|
|Thu, 13 Feb 00:29 UTC||M 1.8 / 0.1 km||0 km||Vesuvius area|
|Thu, 13 Feb 00:00 UTC||M 1.8 / 0.1 km||0 km||Vesuvius area|
Background:Vesuvius ("Vesuvio" in Italian) is probably not only the most famous, but also one, if not the most dangerous volcano on Earth. The first eyewitness account of a volcanic eruption that has been preserved has come to us from Vesuvius: In 79 AD, after a century-long slumber, the volcano woke up with terrifying power in an eruption that buried several Roman towns like Pompeii and Herculaneum under several meters of ash. Today, parts of these cities have been excavated and are among the most remarkable archaeological sites of the world, allowing us to have an excellent view on Roman life and culture, where time and life had been frozen in a moment.
Geologically, Mt. Vesuvius, or more correctly the Somma-Vesuvius complex, is about 400,000 years old, as dating of lava sampled drilled from over 1,300 m depth have shown. Present-day Vesuvius is a medium-sized typical stratovolcano volcano reaching a height of 1,281 m a.s.l. It comprises the older volcano, the Somma, whose summit collapsed (likely during the 79 AD eruption), creating a caldera, and the younger volcano, Vesuvius, which since then has re-grown inside this caldera and formed a new cone. Although in a dormant phase at present, Vesuvius is an extremely active volcano and particular for its unusually varied style of activity: it ranges from Hawaiian-style emission of very liquid lava, extreme lava fountains, lava lakes and lava flows, over Strombolian and Vulcanian eruptions to violently explosive, Plinian eruptions that produce large pyroclastic flows.
When one thinks about Vesuvius volcano today, one aspect is eminent: due to the dense population surrounding it, and ever climbing higher and higher up on its slopes, it is certainly among Earth's most dangerous volcanoes. It is estimated that ore than 500,000 people live in the zone immediately threatened by a future eruption. When this happens is not known; it is possible that Vesuvius has entered into one of its typically century-long lasting phases of dormancy, but volcanoes can be unpredictable. The situation in the Gulf of Naples is further complicated by the presence of another highly active, and potentially as dangerous volcano: the Campi Flegrei, located immediately under a large part of the modern city of Naples proper.
Vesuvius volcano near Naples, Italy, seen from the air. The rim of the remnant of the older Somma volcano which collapsed in the 79 AD Plinian eruption is clearly visible...
On the crater rim of Vesuvius volcano, with steaming vents in the background. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Italian lunch near Vesuvius volcano (c)
The excavations of the Roman town of Ercolaneo buried by pyroclastic flows from Vesuvius volcano in the 79 AD eruption. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Silhouette of Vesuvius as seen from the airplane whilst arriving in Napels, Italy's Volcanoes: The Grand Tour, October 2013 (Photo: Ingrid)
(Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)