BackgroundA large submarine volcano located at the southern end of the Tonga arc rises to within 385 m of the sea surface. Known informally as Volcano 19, the basaltic to basaltic-andesite seamount contains two calderas, a 3.5 x 2.5 km wide outer caldera and a 1.9-km-wide inner caldera on the west side of the volcano. A central cone complex lies in the center of the outer caldera, east of the inner caldera. Two large hydrothermal fields are located near the summit of the central cone complex and at the base of the southern wall of the western inner caldera. Large high-temperature chimney vents discharge clear fluids and black smoke.
Smithsonian / GVP volcano information
See also: Sentinel hub | Landsat 8