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Tengger Caldera volcano (Eastern Java, Indonesia) - Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for 23 December-29 December 2020 (New Activity / Unrest)

Wed, 23 Dec 2020, 06:00
06:00 AM | BY: VN
PVMBG reported that during 26-27 December white-and-gray plumes rose 50-700 m above the summit of Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone. At 0550 on 28 December a gas-and-ash emission rose at least 500 m above the summit according to an observer. Ashfall was reported in the Ngadirejo area, about 5 km NE.
The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to stay outside of a 1-km radius of the crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
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From: Global Volcanism Program, 2020. Report on Tengger Caldera. In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report 23 December-29 December 2020. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.

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Background:

Gunung Bromo (Mount Bromo) volcano is a small, but active volcanic cinder cone on the Indonesian island of Java. Bromo is located in the center of the Sandsea Caldera, itself only a portion of the larger Tengger Caldera. The Sandsea caldera formed around 8,000 years ago, in what must have been a massive eruption. Subsequent volcanic activity formed the cluster of cinder cones in the caldera's center, including Bromo.
The historical record indicates eruptions of Bromo every few years since 1804, and geologic evidence indicates eruptions at least several hundred years earlier. The most recent eruption occured in 2004, and tragically killed two tourists.


The image above shows most of the Sandsea Caldera, along with Gunung Bromo and the older volcanoes on the caldera floor. A small plume of steam is visible rising out of Mt. Bromo. Space Imaging's IKONOS satellite, capable of 4-meter per-pixel color imagery, and 1-meter per-pixel resolution panchromatic imagery, acquired the data on July 8, 2001.


Bromo volcano
Stratovolcano 2329 m / 7,641 ft
East Java, Indonesia, -7.94°S / 112.95°E
Current status: normal or dormant (1 out of 5) Bromo volcano eruptions:
1804, 1815, 1820, 1822, 1825, 1829, 1830, 1835, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1856, 1857, 1858, 1858, 1859, 1860, 1865, 1865, 1866, 1867-68, 1877, 1885, 1885-86, 1886, 1886-87, 1888(?), 1890, 1893, 1896, 1906-07, 1907, 1907-08, 1909, 1910, 1915-16, 1921, 1922, 1928, 1930, 1935, 1939, 1940, 1948, 1950, 1955, 1956, 1972, 1980, 1983(?), 1983, 1984, 1995 (March-May), 1995 (Sep-Dec), 2000 (Nov)-2001 (Jan), 2004 (June), 2010 (Nov)-2011 (Jun) , 2015 (Nov)- 2016 (Nov), 2019 (Mar-Jul), 2020 (Dec), 2021 (Apr-Oct)
Typical eruption style
Explosive. Frequent small, phreatic eruptions at Bromo cinder cone on the bottom of the caldera.

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Zoom onto the cone of Bromo volcano (from the satellite image to the left).
Zoom onto the cone of Bromo volcano (from the satellite image to the left).
NASA space image of Bromo volcano, located inside the Tengger caldera.
NASA space image of Bromo volcano, located inside the Tengger caldera.
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