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Toba volcano

Caldera 2157 m (7,077 ft)
Sumatra, Indonesia, 2.34°N / 98.83°E
Current status: normal or dormant (1 out of 5)

Toba volcano has produced the largest known volcanic eruption on earth during the past 2 million years.

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Typical eruption style:


Erupciones del volcán Toba: 74,000 y BP

Latest nearby earthquakes

Fecha / HoraRevista / ProfundidadDistanciaUbicación
Mon, 22 Feb 2021 (GMT) (1 terremoto)
22 feb 2021 21:23 (GMT +7) (22 Feb 2021 14:23:47 GMT)

10 km - More
131 km56 km al oeste de Kabanjahe, Sumatra Septentrional, Indonesia
Sun, 21 Feb 2021 (GMT) (1 terremoto)
21 feb 2021 01:38 (GMT +0) (21 Feb 2021 01:38:57 GMT)

10 km - More
80 km20 km al este de Kabanjahe, Sumatra Septentrional, Indonesia
Fri, 19 Feb 2021 (GMT) (1 terremoto)
19 feb 2021 20:51 (GMT +7) (19 Feb 2021 13:51:04 GMT)

10 km - More
23 km16 km al sur de Parapat, Indonesia
Thu, 18 Feb 2021 (GMT) (1 terremoto)
18 feb 2021 22:30 (GMT +7) (18 Feb 2021 15:30:32 GMT)

167 km - More
108 km41 km al noreste de Padangsidempuan, Sumatra Septentrional, Indonesia
Wed, 17 Feb 2021 (GMT) (1 terremoto)
18 feb 2021 02:02 (GMT +7) (17 Feb 2021 19:02:35 GMT)

10 km - More
48 km34 km al suroeste de Pematangsiantar, Sumatra Septentrional, Indonesia


About 74,000 years BP, more than 2500 cubic kilometers of magma were erupted. The eruption led to the final formation of one of earths largest calderas, the 35x100 km wide Toba caldera. Eruptions of this size are exptremely rare and are called supervolcano-eruptions. The Toba caldera is in fact the Earth's largest Quaternary caldera. It was formed during four major Pleistocene ignimbrite-producing eruptions beginning at 1.2 million years ago and culminating with the colossal Young Toba Tuff (YTT) eruption about 74,000 years ago. The YTT emplaced about 2500-3000 cu km (dense rock equivalent) of ignimbrite and airfall ash from vents at the NW and SE ends of present-day Lake Toba.
After the YTT eruption, resurgent doming formed the massive Samosir Island and Uluan Peninsula structural blocks. Additional post-YTT eruptions include a series of lava domes, the growth of the solfatarically active Pusukbukit volcano on the south margin of the caldera, and the formation of Tandukbenua volcano at the NW-most rim of the caldera. Lack of vegetation suggests that this volcano may be only a few hundred years old.

Source: GVP, Smithsonian Institute

See also: Sentinel hub | Landsat 8

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