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Which is the most dangerous volcano in the world?

Vesuvius volcano seen from the city of Naples
Vesuvius volcano seen from the city of Naples
The quick answer: Vesuvius volcano in the Gulf of Naples, Italy. The reason is that Vesuvius'typical eruptions are very explosive and the slopes of the volcano and immediate area surrounding the volcano are extremely densely populated; even the city of Naples is only about 20 km away from the volcano. In case of a major Plinian eruption, more than 3 million people could be at risk and an incredible value of infrastructure. Vesuvius has been silent since 1944 now, and might remain so for quite a time to come, but it is quite certain that it will wake up again, sooner or later, but on a human timescale (decades to centuries, in contrast to the so-called supervolcanoes). When it does wake up, it tends to start a new eruptive cycle with a large sub-plinian or plinian eruption.
In the past, every time Vesuvius erupted after a long interval, it has been highly destructive and killed thousands of people: a prehistoric eruption about 2000 BC devastating the present-day area of Naples, the famous Roman "Plinian" eruption of 79 destroying Pompeii and Herculaneum, and the even worse (in terms of damage) eruption of 1631 are worst-case examples of the type of eruption to expect when Vesuvius wakes up again. The Italian government has plans to evacuate 600,000 people living in the immediate risk zone on the lower slopes of the volcano, in case a new eruption seems likely, but it is quite doubtful whether such plans are realistic or could be effective. Now, the long answer: it depends... Which volcano is the most dangerous depends on your definition of dangerousness. A good measure is the total volcanic risk posed by the volcano. That in turn is best described as the integrated overall value of the product between the likelihood of an eruption of a given size and the damage caused by it. Supervolcanoes such as Yellowstone, if they were to erupt now as they probably did a million year ago, would threaten life and property globally, but withing reasonable human timescales, the likelihood of this happening is extremely small and mankind will most likely find own ways to harm itself long before we need a supervolcano.
For that reason, Vesuvius ranks high above even supervolcanoes in its "dangerousness". Other dangerous volcanoes include Nyiragongo, which poses a realistic risk to destroy the town of Goma at its southern slopes with fast running lava flows, and Merapi volcano near the city of Yogyakarta. Hundreds of villages and tens of thousands of people live less than 8 km away from the summit lava dome. Even a moderate eruption such as the recent one in Nov 2010 can therefore be a killer, and despite the best efforts of Indonesia's government to evacuate, there were hundreds of fatalities. A really big eruption would cause unthinkable damage and loss of life.

Volcano list

Vesuvius

(Stratovolcano 1281 m)
Vesuvius volcano near Naples, Italy, seen from the air. The rim of the remnant of the older Somma volcano which collapsed in the 79 AD Plinian eruption is clearly visible to the left of the new Cono Grande cone with its crater.
Vesuvius volcano near Naples, Italy, seen from the air. The rim of the remnant of the older Somma volcano which collapsed in the 79 AD Plinian eruption is clearly visible to the left of the new Cono Grande cone with its crater.
[more]

Merapi

(Stratovolcano 2968 m / 9,737 ft)
Glowing avalanches of hot rocks from the new lava dome (2006 eruption).
Glowing avalanches of hot rocks from the new lava dome (2006 eruption).
Merapi, a steep stratovolcano north of Central Java's capital Yogyakarta, is Indonesia's most active volcano. It erupts on average every 5-10 years and is feared for its deadly pyroclastic flows - avalanches of hot rocks and gas that are generated when parts of new lava domes con... [more]

Nyiragongo

(Stratovolcano 3470 m / 11,384 ft)
The lava lake of Nyiragongo volcano
The lava lake of Nyiragongo volcano
Nyiragongo (also spelled Niragongo), one of the world's most beautiful and active volcanoes, is a large stratovolcano near Lake Kivu at the eastern border of DRCongo with Rwanda in the Virunga National Park.
It has a 1.2 km diameter summit caldera containing the world's mo... [more]
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