Nyiragongo volcan

Stratovolcano 3470 m / 11,384 ft

Condition actuelle: en éruption (4 sur 5)
Last update: 10 oct. 2021 (actively growing lava lake at high levels)
The lava lake of Nyiragongo volcano
The lava lake of Nyiragongo volcano

Nyiragongo (également orthographié Niragongo), un des volcans les plus belles et les actifs du monde, est un grand stratovolcan près du lac Kivu à la frontière orientale de la RDCongo avec le Rwanda dans le Parc national des Virunga.
Il a une caldeira 1.2 km de diamètre au sommet contenant du lac de lave du monde les plus actifs et plus.
Nyiragongo est tristement célèbre pour sa lave extrêmement fluide qui passe comme l'eau quand le lac de lave s'écoule. Le 17 Janvier 2002, Nyiragongo et le lac de lave drainé de fissures sur ses flancs occidentaux. Le centre-ville de la ville de Goma, la capitale de la province de l'Est des Virunga, avait été détruite par des coulées de lave voluninous. 200.000 personnes ont été laissées sans abri, ajoutant à la desaster humaines causées par les fréquentes guerres civiles.

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Style éruptif tipique: Large effusive eruptions; persistant lava lake in the summit crater.
Eruptions du volcan Nyiragongo: 1884, 1894, 1898, 1899, 1900, 1901, 1902, 1905, 1906, 1908(?), 1911, 1918, 1920-21, 1927-77, 1977, 1982, 1994-96, 2002 (17 Jan.), 2002-ongoing (lava lake)

No recent earthquakes
HeureMag. / ProfondeurDistance/Lieu

Introduction

Nyiragongo, located in the Western branch of the Rift Valley near Lake Kivu and the Congolese-Rwandese border, is one of the world's most active volcanoes. It is notorious for its lava lake and producing lateral eruptions with extremely fluid, fast-moving lava flows that repeatedly devastated areas around the volcano, such as the Goma desaster on January 2002, when a lava flow destroyed much of the city's commercial center and promted 200,000 people to flee.

The large lava lake contained in its deep summit crater, now active again, became famous in the 1960's and 70's when volcanologists such as the Kraffts and Tazieff studied it. It had been active for half a century before it drained in one of the volcano's recent most catastrophic eruptions in 1977: through openings in its outer flanks in 1977, a huge lava flow poured out and killed hundreds of people. A similar event happened again in January 2002, when lava flows from flank vents drained the lake and cut through Goma, reaching Lake Kivu.
In contrast to its neighbor volcano, Nyamuragira,- a typical, and very active shield volcano comparable with Mauna Loa,- the 3470-m-high Nyiragongo displays the steep slopes of a stratovolcano. Terraces inside the steep-walled, 1.2-km-wide summit crater mark levels of former lava lakes, which have been observed since the late-19th century.
Two older volcanoes, Baruta and Shaheru, are partially overlapped by Nyiragongo on the north and south and look like lateral cones. About 100 parasitic cones are located primarily along radial fissures south of Shaheru, east of the summit, and along a NE-SW zone extending as far as Lake Kivu. Many cones are buried by voluminous lava flows that extend long distances down the flanks of the volcano.


Voyages au volcan Nyiragongo :
Le Grand Lac de Lave du Nyiragongo (Expédition sur le volcan Nyiragongo et dans le parc des Virunga (gorilles de montagne))

See also: Sentinel hub | Landsat 8
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Links and recommended reading:

Publications:

  • Allard P., Baxter P., Halbwachs M., Kasareka M., Komorowski J.C., Joron J.L. (2003), The most destructive effusive eruption in modern history: Nyiragongo 2003, Geophysical Research Abstracts, v. 5, 11970

Anciennes publications:

  • Verhoogen, Jean: Les volcans Virunga et l'éruption du Nyamlagira de 1938 / par J. Verhoogen, S. 326 - 353. (Frankfurt University Library, Germany)
  • Meyer, André: Study of the Volcano Nyiragongo : a progress report / by Thure G. Sahama and André Meyer. - Bruxelles : Hayez, 1958 (Frankfurt University Library)
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