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Kilauea volcano (Hawaii): phoehoe lava flows (March 2017)

A selection of images of the g61 lava flow in March 2017 - active and frozen lava flows of pahoehoe type with ropy and toe structures.
The vast lava field of the g61 flow in the coastal flat - the steam plume from the active ocean entry in the background. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
The vast lava field of the g61 flow in the coastal flat - the steam plume from the active ocean entr... [info]
(130 Hits)
An active lava breakout advances at a location about half way to the base of the pali (the steeper slope in the background). (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
An active lava breakout advances at a location about half way to the base of the pali (the steeper s... [info]
(147 Hits)
Another breakout with several advancing lava flow toes. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Another breakout with several advancing lava flow toes. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(137 Hits)
The speed of the advancing lava toe is about a few cm per second or less. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
The speed of the advancing lava toe is about a few cm per second or less. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(190 Hits)
Often, larger breakout surfaces become ropy in structure as the quickly formed, but still soft skin of the lava flow resists motion and is shaped into folds by drag of the lava flowing underneath. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Often, larger breakout surfaces become ropy in structure as the quickly formed, but still soft skin ... [info]
(181 Hits)
More spiny-textured pahoehoe folds (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
More spiny-textured pahoehoe folds (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(156 Hits)
Old pahoehoe ropes from a hardened flow. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Old pahoehoe ropes from a hardened flow. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(152 Hits)
Yellow sulfur and mineral deposits have formed near a crack on the lava flow's surface. This was caused by SO2-rich gasses escaping from a lava tube that once had been active underneath. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Yellow sulfur and mineral deposits have formed near a crack on the lava flow's surface. This was cau... [info]
(156 Hits)
A still glassy and very smooth surface texture of a cooled flow, but already damaged in one place. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
A still glassy and very smooth surface texture of a cooled flow, but already damaged in one place. (... [info]
(140 Hits)
Surface of a small active lava flow. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Surface of a small active lava flow. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(172 Hits)
Actively forming, regular lava "ropes" on a breakout flow. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Actively forming, regular lava "ropes" on a breakout flow. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(433 Hits)
A similar flow surface, but already about 5 minutes old - the red lava is only visible at the lower margins between individual ropes. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
A similar flow surface, but already about 5 minutes old - the red lava is only visible at the lower ... [info]
(192 Hits)
A very regular curved ropy pattern on a cooled flow's surface. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
A very regular curved ropy pattern on a cooled flow's surface. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(181 Hits)
Kat photographing an active lava flow. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Kat photographing an active lava flow. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(149 Hits)
Quickly advancing lava toe (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Quickly advancing lava toe (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(129 Hits)
The shape of the lava flow changes constantly as it continues to advance with ever new lava toes. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
The shape of the lava flow changes constantly as it continues to advance with ever new lava toes. (P... [info]
(146 Hits)
An active lava toe creeping into a crack. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
An active lava toe creeping into a crack. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(112 Hits)
A lava smiley - can you see it? (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
A lava smiley - can you see it? (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(118 Hits)
Moving lava toe (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Moving lava toe (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(274 Hits)
The lava field surface is full of plate-like structures like this one: a part of the surface of the flow had been lifted up by about 30 cm, caused by still active lava underneath while a small amount of lava oozed out from the base of the suture. This process is called inflation and contributes by far the largest volume to the growth of pahoehoe lava flows. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
The lava field surface is full of plate-like structures like this one: a part of the surface of the ... [info]
(124 Hits)
Here, active inflation can be observed without time-lapse: a piece of the surface is lifted up while small amounts of fresh lava form new breakouts at the base of the plate. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Here, active inflation can be observed without time-lapse: a piece of the surface is lifted up while... [info]
(97 Hits)
Another example of the inflation process in the making is seen here. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Another example of the inflation process in the making is seen here. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(98 Hits)
A relatively large breakout has formed in this location at the margin of an active flow. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
A relatively large breakout has formed in this location at the margin of an active flow. (Photo: Tom... [info]
(94 Hits)
A curved lava flow forms and quickly produces ropy lava. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
A curved lava flow forms and quickly produces ropy lava. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(116 Hits)
A lava turtle (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
A lava turtle (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(75 Hits)
On our last evening at the lava flows during the Kilauea Special tour, we find nice breakouts again about half way up between the coast and the base of the pali. An advancing lava flow is about to fill in a small "valley". (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
On our last evening at the lava flows during the Kilauea Special tour, we find nice breakouts again ... [info]
(337 Hits)
The same flow a few minutes later. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
The same flow a few minutes later. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(81 Hits)
The lava continues to advance into and fill the small basin where we were standing. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
The lava continues to advance into and fill the small basin where we were standing. (Photo: Tom Pfei... [info]
(90 Hits)
Something like this had happened here, leaving a triangle of old lava crust standing vertical like a frozen shark fin. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Something like this had happened here, leaving a triangle of old lava crust standing vertical like a... [info]
(99 Hits)
Slow-moving pahoehoe lava at dusk. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Slow-moving pahoehoe lava at dusk. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(95 Hits)
A narrow lava tongue, reminding of a snake or elephant trunk. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
A narrow lava tongue, reminding of a snake or elephant trunk. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(97 Hits)
The lava flow in the dark is very attractive. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
The lava flow in the dark is very attractive. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(319 Hits)
The same lava tongue, but with a longer exposure blurs the lava. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
The same lava tongue, but with a longer exposure blurs the lava. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(97 Hits)
A small bulge at the margin of a flow that is still undecided whether or not to turn into a proper lava toe. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
A small bulge at the margin of a flow that is still undecided whether or not to turn into a proper l... [info]
(88 Hits)
Irregular shaped active lava breakout. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Irregular shaped active lava breakout. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(91 Hits)
Typical lava flow fingers (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Typical lava flow fingers (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(85 Hits)
Small ropy lava flow (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Small ropy lava flow (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(88 Hits)
Spiny ropy pahoehoe that has just cooled. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Spiny ropy pahoehoe that has just cooled. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(76 Hits)
Zoom onto the area where a small lava channel starts. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Zoom onto the area where a small lava channel starts. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(88 Hits)
Relatively fast-flowing lava oozing out from a larger breakout point. The heat radiation is so strong that it is only possible to have the camera near it wearing gloves and long-sleeved clothes, and even so, the lens can only stand it for a fraction of a second without being burned. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Relatively fast-flowing lava oozing out from a larger breakout point. The heat radiation is so stron... [info]
(96 Hits)
Old and fresh lava - after some time, they become nearly indistinguishable. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Old and fresh lava - after some time, they become nearly indistinguishable. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(76 Hits)
Curved active lava toe. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Curved active lava toe. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(76 Hits)
Surface texture of active lava flow. The strain of the sticky lava in combination with rapid cooling of its surface creates spiny and needle-shaped textures. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Surface texture of active lava flow. The strain of the sticky lava in combination with rapid cooling... [info]
(89 Hits)
Cooled and still glowing lava surface. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Cooled and still glowing lava surface. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(82 Hits)
Near flat, glassy surface of a lava flow that has just cooled. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Near flat, glassy surface of a lava flow that has just cooled. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(73 Hits)
In sunlight, the lava glow is almost eclipsed by the reflection of the quickly forming, silvery skin. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
In sunlight, the lava glow is almost eclipsed by the reflection of the quickly forming, silvery skin... [info]
(64 Hits)
Contact of the young g61 lava flow (formed after July 2016 in this area) with the lava flow surface a few years older, and already inhabited by the first plant settlers, tiny ferns. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Contact of the young g61 lava flow (formed after July 2016 in this area) with the lava flow surface ... [info]
(94 Hits)
Active lava flow filling a crack. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Active lava flow filling a crack. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(74 Hits)
Watching the lava advance, one gets a feeling for its dough-like viscosity. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Watching the lava advance, one gets a feeling for its dough-like viscosity. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(51 Hits)
A more intense breakout occurred after a part of the crust had been uplifted and separated from the ground during inflation. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
A more intense breakout occurred after a part of the crust had been uplifted and separated from the ... [info]
(62 Hits)
Fractures are often being sealed by lava oozing out from the interior of the flow. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Fractures are often being sealed by lava oozing out from the interior of the flow. (Photo: Tom Pfeif... [info]
(59 Hits)
No two lava toes have exactly the same shape. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
No two lava toes have exactly the same shape. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(56 Hits)
Intense lava breakout activity can cover a square meter of older ground in less than a minute. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Intense lava breakout activity can cover a square meter of older ground in less than a minute. (Phot... [info]
(53 Hits)
Two active lava toes meet. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Two active lava toes meet. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(52 Hits)
Meeting lava toes rarely merge. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Meeting lava toes rarely merge. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(53 Hits)
Fast-moving pahoehoe lava. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Fast-moving pahoehoe lava. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(56 Hits)
Typical small active lava channel with ropy texture. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Typical small active lava channel with ropy texture. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(60 Hits)
Folds and ropes are caused by different velocities of the soft skin dragged by the more liquid lava flowing faster underneath. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Folds and ropes are caused by different velocities of the soft skin dragged by the more liquid lava ... [info]
(57 Hits)
Active lava ropes (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Active lava ropes (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(69 Hits)
Abstract, elegant curves of red hot lava (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Abstract, elegant curves of red hot lava (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(55 Hits)
A broad lava toe forms ropes at its stalled front. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
A broad lava toe forms ropes at its stalled front. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(62 Hits)
Chaotic old ropes - these must have formed during a much larger and faster moving breakout than those we found. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Chaotic old ropes - these must have formed during a much larger and faster moving breakout than thos... [info]
(91 Hits)
Still hot spiny ropes (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Still hot spiny ropes (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(57 Hits)
View of the same breakout flow from a different angle. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
View of the same breakout flow from a different angle. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
(57 Hits)
 

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