Grímsvötn volcan

Caldera 1725 m (5,659 ft)

Condition actuelle: en vigilance - niveau agité (2 sur 5)
Last update: 3 sept. 2021

Grmsvtn est le volcan actif le plus souvent de l'Islande, probablement parce qu'il est situé sur le centre de la zone NE rift actif de l'Islande. La plupart du volcan est caché sous le glacier géant de Vatnajkull, le plus grand glacier d'Europe.

Montrer carte interactive
Style éruptif tipique: Effusive, explosive magma-water/ice reaction. Produces notorious and frequent floods of melt-water bursts from the glacier (jökulhlaups).
Eruptions du volcan Grímsvötn: ca. 1310, 1332, 1341, 1354(?), ca. 1370, ca. 1390, ca. 1430, ca. 1450, ca. 1470, ca. 1490, ca. 1510, ca. 1530, 1598, 1603, 1619, 1629, 1638, 1659, 1681, 1684-85, 1706, 1716, 1725, 1753, 1768, 1774, 1783-85 (Laki fissure eruption: the largest historically known effusive eruption), 1794(?), 1796(?), 1816, 1823, 1838, 1854, 1861(?), 1867, 1873, 1883, 1887-89, 1891-92, 1897, 1902-04, 1922, 1933, 1934, 1934, 1938, 1939(?), 1941(?), 1945, 1948(?), 1954, 1972(?), 1983, 1984(?), 1996, 1998, 2004 (Nov.)

HeureMag. / ProfondeurDistance/Lieu
lundi, 25. octobre 2021 07:06 GMT (1 séisme)
25 oct. 2021 07:06 (GMT +0) (25. oct. 2021 07:06 GMT)
1.5

2 km
23 km (14 mi)
Iceland: 3.4 Km SE of Bárðarbunga
lundi, 18. octobre 2021 02:54 GMT (1 séisme)
18 oct. 2021 02:54 (GMT +0) (18. oct. 2021 02:54 GMT)
1.9

16 km
22 km (14 mi)
Iceland: 5.6 Km SE of Bárðarbunga
dimanche, 17. octobre 2021 05:24 GMT (1 séisme)
17 oct. 2021 05:24 (GMT +0) (17. oct. 2021 05:24 GMT)
2.1

8.4 km
13 km (8.1 mi)
Iceland: 14.3 Km E of Hamarinn
vendredi, 15. octobre 2021 04:00 GMT (1 séisme)
15 oct. 2021 04:00 (GMT +0) (15. oct. 2021 04:00 GMT)
1.6

3.5 km
4.3 km (2.7 mi)
Iceland: 2.0 Km SSW of Grímsfjall

Introduction

Grímsvötn volcano has a 6x8 km large caldera, whose southern rim is exposed. The caldera contains a lake of liquid water, due to the thermal energy from the volcano. The lake is covered by the ice of the glacier, but during eruptions or times of increased hydrothermal activity from the volcano, the amount of melt water and the pressure of the lake against the ice above becomes strong enough to lift the ice dam and pour out at the South side of the glacier in devastating floods known as jökulhlaups.
During eruptions, the overlying part of the glacier is often melted through, creating a giant hole in the ice permitting breathtaking views from above onto the lake, from where ash and steam can escape.

Fissures and the Laki fissure eruption in 1783:
The volcano's structure seems to be dominated by NE-SW trending fissures that correspond to the rift zone. Eruptions from these fissures can occur well beyond the extent of the glacier, such as the huge eruption in 1783, known as the Laki fissure eruption.
It is the largest known effusive eruption that has occurred on earth during the past millennia. About 15 cubic kilometers of basaltic lava flows were erupted from a 27-km long fissure over a period of 7 months. Accompanied by enormous amounts of suphur dioxide and fluoride gas, the eruption caused wide-spread crop damage, killed a large number of lifestock and caused a severe famine on Iceland. As a result, one fifth of Iceland's population was killed. Some consequences of the eruption were even noticed in other parts of the world: Volcanic fog (the gas cloud from the eruption) was drifting over Europe and parts of Asia, altering summer temperatures. This eruption was the first one that brought some scientists to the idea that volcanoes can impact the world's climate.

Background
Grímsnes is a relatively small volcanic system located SE of Thingvallavatn lake east of an en echelon group of volcanic fields extending across the Reykjanes Peninsula.
Grímsnes lava flows cover 54 sq km and were erupted from a group of 11 fissures that produced a series of NE-SW-trending crater rows. The eruptions of the basaltic Grímsnes lavas were restricted to a relatively short interval between about 6500 and 5500 years ago.

---
Source: GVP, Smithsonian Institute


See also: Sentinel hub | Landsat 8
Montrer plus

Découvrez notre app gratuite !
Volcanoes & Earthquakes - new app for Android
Android | Version iOS

Plus sur VolcanoDiscovery

Why is there advertising on this site?
Support us - Help us upgrade our services!
We truly love working to bring you the latest volcano and earthquake data from around the world. Maintaining our website and our free apps does require, however, considerable time and resources.
We need financing to increase hard- and software capacity as well as support our editor team. We're aiming to achieve uninterrupted service wherever an earthquake or volcano eruption unfolds, and your donations can make it happen! Every donation will be highly appreciated. If you find the information useful and would like to support our team in integrating further features, write great content, and in upgrading our soft- and hardware, please make a donation (PayPal or Online credit card payment).

Planned features:
  • Improved multilanguage support
  • Tsunami alerts
  • Faster responsiveness
Thanks to your past donations, these features have been added recently:
  • Earthquake archive from 1900 onwards
  • Detailed quake stats
  • Additional seismic data sources
Download and Upgrade the Volcanoes & Earthquakes app to get one of the fastest seismic and volcano alerts online:
Android | IOS
Thank you!
Copyright: VolcanoDiscovery ou autres sources indiquées.
Utilisation des documents: Les textes, les images et les vidéos de ce site internet sont protégées par copyright. Toute reproduction et tout usage sans accord préalable ne sont pas autorisés. Si vous désirez acquérir pour certains documents (photos, vidéos, textes ou autres) le droit de reproduction, d'édition et, plus généralement, de toute utilisation destinée à un usage public, qu'elle soit commerciale ou pas, vous êtes priés de nous contacter.