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Abu (Volcano)

Abu volcano is a group of 56 smaller volcanic centers with no individual large central volcano, located near the Japan Sea coast in southwest Honshu, Japan, 80 km west of Hiroshima. The group, also known as the Abu Monogenetic Volcano Group (AMVG), covers 400 sq km and consists of basaltic-to-dacitic lava flows, small shield volcanoes (some with associated cinder cones) and lava domes. Its total volume is ca. 4 cubic km, with no individual center being larger than 0.5 km3. Irao-yama (641 m) is the highest peak. Some of the volcanic centers of Abu volcano form offshore islands or submarine vents. The most recent eruption at the volcano was a central vent explosion at Kasa-yama ca. 8000 years ago. -> See whole entry

Acamarachi (Volcano)

Acamarachi (also known as Cerro Pili) volcano is a stratovolcano in northern Chile. The andesitic-dacitic volcano has very steep slopes (45 deg angle) and forms the highest peak in this part of the Andes. The volcano contains a poorly preserved summit crater and a large lava dome on the north flank. There are no known lava flows from Holocene times, suggesting the volcano might be extinct. The summit crater contains a lake about 10-15 m in diameter, which is possibly the second highest crater lake in the world. Acamarachi is located very close to Colachi volcano, which is only 6 km NNW, but both volcanoes have independent magma systems.

accretionary lapilli (Volcanology)

Small spherical balls of volcanic ash -> See whole entry

Acigöl-Nevsehir (Volcano)

The big caldera of Acigöl-Nevsehir is located in central Turkey and has a size of 7-8 km diameter. -> See whole entry

Acotango (Volcano)

Acotango volcano is a poorly known volcano on the Chile/Bolivia border. A young lava flow on the northern flank suggests that the volcano has had eruptions within the past 10,000 years and might be considered active.

Adatara (Volcano)

Adatara volcano is a group of overlapping stratovolcanoes east of Bandai volcano and located 15 km SW of Fukushima City. Its highest summit is Minowa-yama stratovolcano, north of Tetsu-zan, which is the currently active stratovolcano. The group forms a N-S directed elongated chain. The volcano is known for its hot springs and fumaroles. Io-gawa river ("Sulfur River") exits the complex to the west. 72 workers of a sulfur mine in the summit crater were killed during an eruption in 1900. Historical eruptions were all from within the 1.2-km-wide, 350-m-deep Numonotaira crater of Tetsu-zan. -> See whole entry

Aetna Synonym of: Etna()

Afrera salt lake (Place)

Salt lake in Ethiopia -> See whole entry

agate (Minerals)

Agate is a microcrystalline variety of quartz (silica), chiefly chalcedony, characterised by its fineness of grain and brightness of color. -> See whole entry

Aghie Synonym of: Pechan(Volcano)

Agios Georgios (Place:Agios Georgios harbour)

Agios Georgios is a little harbour on the Methana peninsula in Greece -> See whole entry

Agua de Pau (Volcano)

Agua de Pau stratovolcano in central Sao Miguel Island contains an outer 4 x 7 km caldera formed about 30,000 to 45,000 years ago and an inner 2.5 x 3 km caldera that was created about 15,000 years ago. -> See whole entry

Aguilera (Volcano)

Aguilera is a dacitic stratovolcano in the southernmost Chilean Andes and located west of Lake Argentina and NE of Peel Fjiord. Its geologic history is poorly known, but there Aguilera must have had a large explosive eruption less than about 3600 years ago, which left a prominent tephra layer. Aguilera belongs to the Australandean Volcanic Zone of south Patagonia. -> See whole entry

Agung (Volcano:Gunung Agung)

Mount Agung or Gunung Agung is a active volcano in Bali. This stratovolcano is the highest point on the island. It dominates the surrounding area influencing the climate. The clouds come from the west and Agung takes their water so that the west is lush and green and the east dry and barren. -> See whole entry

Akagi (Volcano)

Akagi volcano is a broad stratovolcano located in central Honshu, 110 km NNW of Tokyo. It is part of the Akagi Prefectural Par. The volcano contains a 3 x 4 km diameter summit caldera which contains lake Ono in the NE. It is uncertain whether the volcano has erupted in the past 2000 years. Reports about possible activity in the 9th century, in 1251 and 1938 are considered unreliable. -> See whole entry

Akan (Volcano)

Akan volcano (阿寒岳, Akan-dake) is one of Hokkaido's most active volcanoes. Akan consists of a large 24 x 13 km diameter caldera and a group of younger partly Holocene andesite cones. The highest point of the complex is the Mount Meakan (1499 m) stratovolcano. The frequent historic eruptions occurred all from the Me-Akan group, east of Lake Akan. Me-Akan volcano (雌阿寒岳 Meakan-dake) consists of 9 overlapping cones. Its summit has 3 craters. Me-Akan has had at least 17 small phreatic eruptions since the beginning of the 19th century and from geologic studies it is known that there were at least 4 major magmatic eruptions with pyroclastic flows have occurred in prehistoric time during the past 10,000 years. Lake Akan is part of the Akan National Park. It is known for a rare green algae (marimo) which can grow to about the size of a soccer ball. The only town around the lake is the resort of Akankohan known for its hot springs and the "bokke", bubbling mud pools found at the lakeshore. -> See whole entry

Akita-Komaga-take (Volcano)

Akita-Komaga-take volcano is an active volcano in northern Honshu. It is located 10 km east of Tazawa Lake, near the border of Akita and Iwate prefectures, and forms the southern extremity of the Towada-Hachimantai National Park. The volcano consists of a main edifice cut by 2 calderas that formed after 2 large explosive eruptions between 11,600 and 13,500 years ago. The calderas are partially filled by younger cones. Historic activity consists of small eruptions from cones and fissure vents inside the southern caldera. It is suspected that Akita-Komaga-take's eruptions are often not preceded by much seismic activity, as was the case during the last eruption, in 1970. -> See whole entry

Akita-Yake-yama (Volcano)

Akita-Yake-yama volcano is an active stratovolcano in NW Honshu. It is one of several Japanese volcanoes named Yake-yama ("Burning Mountain"). Akita-Yake-yama is the most recently active of a group of overlapping volcanoes immediately west of the Hachimantai volcanic group. Its cone is 7 km wide at the base and contains a 600 m wide summit crater containing a small lava dome, Onigajo. Most of the volcano's frequent eruptions were only phreatic and often ejected mud. The last magmatic eruption was the formation of the Onigajo lava dome in the summit crater about 5000 years ago. There are fumaroles and hot springs around the volcano, including the strongly radioactive Tamagawa spa at the western foot of the volcano.Tsugamori volcano to the east is a stratovolcano of roughly the same height as Yake-yama and has a 2-km-wide crater breached to the NE. The flat-topped parasitic lava dome of Kuroshimori lies 4 km south of Yake-dake.

Akrotiri (Place)

Akrotiri is a village in the southwest of Santorini island -> See whole entry

Akuseki-jima (Volcano)

Akuseki-jima volcano is a small stratovolcano in the southern Ryukyu Islands, Japan. It forms the island of the same name, which measures 2.5 x 3.2 km in diameter and is surrounded by steep cliffs with beaches present only on the SW and SE sides. Although no direct date exists, it is plausible that Akuseki-jimais is still active.Akuseki-jima Island Only about 80 people live on the small island. Access to Akuseki-jima island is limited to one ferry running twice a week traveling 11 hours from Kagoshima. The island has no sources and depends on rainwater as water source.July 22, 2009 solar eclipse It was one of the best observation spots (one of the closest inhabited areas to the location of maximum eclipse duration) for the Solar eclipse of 22 July 2009. -> See whole entry

Akyarlar (Volcano)

The Bodrum & Akyarlar volcanics belong to the area of the active Cos volcanic complex and are the most western volcanics of Turkey. -> See whole entry

Al Harrah (Volcano)

Al Harrah volcano is a large basaltic volcanic field in NW Saudi Arabia near the Jordanian border. It comprises 15,200 sq km of basalt lava flows and forms the southern third of the Harrat Ash Shamah volcanic field, which extends from Syria through Jordan into northern Saudi Arabia. -> See whole entry

Alaid (Volcano)

Alaid is the tallest and northernmost volcano in the Kurile Islands. Also called Atlasov as the island it forms, the symmetrical stratovolcano rises 3000 m from the sea floor and forms a small island. It has a 1.5-km-wide summit crater breached to the south. It is one of the Kuriles' most active volcanoes. Large explosive eruptions occurred in 1790 and 1981, and were among the largest in the Kuriles in historic times. -> See whole entry

Alcantara gorge (Place)

The Alcantara is a river in Sicily. -> See whole entry

Aliso (Volcano)

Aliso volcano is a newly discovered active stratovolcano complex at the eastern foot of the Ecuadorian Andes, east of Antisana volcano and SW of the town of Baeza. It contains andesitic lava flows, lava domes and pyroclastic flow deposits. Aliso volcano is dormant and has been last active about 2000 years ago. -> See whole entry

Alligator Lake (Volcano)

Alligator Lake in southern Yukon, Canada, is a group of basaltic cones and lava flows (the Miles Canyon basalts). It is located at the northern extremity of the Stikine volcanic belt, 30 km southwest of the capital city Whitehorse. The field contains 2 cinder cones on top of a small basaltic shield volcano which is eroded by glacial cover. The cones probably post-date the ice age and seem to be a few thousands years old. Lava flows from both cones traveled to the north and were erupted simultaneously. The longest lava flow extends 6 km N and reaches a width of 10 km.

Altar (Volcano)

El Altar is an extinct stratovolcano on the western side of Sangay National Park in Ecuador, 170 km south of Quito. Altar was last active about 2 million years ago and contains a caldera open to the west, which contains a lake. A large rockslide caused fatalities in 2000. On 13 October 2000, a large block of andesitic breccia with a volumne of ca. 1.5 million m3 rock broke off from near the summit and slid 900 m down into a caldera lake. This impact caused a 50 m high tsunami which overflowed the caldera and produced a lahar, that killed 13 people -> See whole entry

Alu (Volcano)

A series of eruptive fissures near Dalaffilla volcano at the northern end of the Erta Ale range (Danakil desert, Ethiopia), many of which have erupted voluminous basaltic lava flows, as recently as in Nov. 2008. -> See whole entry

Aluchin Group (Volcano)

The Aluchin volcanic group is a cluster of 4 young cinder cones located in the Bilibino Region, in the Aluchin and Burgakhchan river basins in western Chukotka (Siberia). The cinder cones of Aluchin volcano could have erupted less than 10,000 years ago. -> See whole entry

Amasing (Volcano)

Amasing volcano lies off the southern coast of Halmahera Island, Indonesia, on the small island of Bacan (Palau Batjan). Bukit Amasing (Amasing Hill) is the largest and NW most of 3 small andesitic volcanoes, the other two being Cakasuanggi and Dua Saundara. No recent activity is know from Amasing, and the volcanic edifice is strongly eroded, suggesting it might be extinct.

Ambalatungan (Volcano)

The Ambalatungan group is a cluster of several volcanoes on northern Luzon Island, Philippines, conprising Ambalatungan, Bumabag, Podakan, and Binuluan volcanoes, aligned roughly E-W. Ambalatungan volcano is dacitic in composition, and has a steep-walled crater, inside which there are hot springs and strong fumarole vents which produce loud noises and have sulphur deposits. Bumabag volcano is located only 3 km east of Ambalatungan and has 2 craters that also produce strong fumarolic activity. Podakan volcano is 1 km SE of Bumabag and also has a large steam vent. A possible steam eruption might have occurred from Mount Binuluan in 1952, which killed 12 people by a sulfur-rich debris flow.

Ambang (Volcano)

Ambitle (Volcano)

Ambitle volcano is an active stratovolcano on the 16 km wide N-S and 13 km E-W Ambtitle Island, located 50 km off the SE coast of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea. Ambtitle is the largest of the Feni Islands, along with the extinct Pleistocene Babase Island / volcano, which are near the SE end of a volcanic island chain north and east of New Ireland. Ambitle volcano contains a 3 km wide caldera and lava domes. It last erupted about 2300 years ago from a vent on the east side of one of the lava domes inside the caldera forming an explosion crater (maar). Ambitle is particularly interesting for its shallow-marine hydrothermal vent system of Tutum Bay, which emits hot, acidic, arsenic-rich fluids into sea water. -> See whole entry

Amboy (Volcano)

The Amboy volcanic field covers an area of 70 km2 between Bagdad Dry Lake to the west and Bristol Dry Lake to the east in the Mojave Desert, California. It contains mainly pahoehoe lava flows. Amboy crater proper is a prominant cinder cone in the NE of the lava field. -> See whole entry

Ambrym (Volcano)

Ambrym is a large basaltic volcano with a 12-km-wide caldera. It is not only one of the most active volcanoes of Vanuatu, but in the world. Its most active craters often contain small lava lakes. -> See whole entry

Amiata (Volcano)

Amiata is a lava dome complex located about 20 km NW of Lake Bolsena in the southern Tuscany region of Italy. -> See whole entry

Amorong (Volcano)

Amorong volcano a small lava dome in NW Luzon Island, 80 km NNE of Pinatubo volcano, and belongs to the Eastern Volcanic Chain or Balungao Group, a chain of subduction volcanoes behind the Manila Trench. It is the only of a group of several lava domes that still has fumarolic activity. It was active from about 740,000 years ago. -> See whole entry

Anak Krakatau (Volcano)

Literally translated, "the child of Krakatau", Anak Krakatau is the youngest island of the Krakatau volcanic archipel in the Sunda Strait. It was formed during new eruptions in 1927 when a new island appeared in the caldera left by the huge eruption of Krakatau volcano in 1883.

Anatahan (Volcano)

Anatahan volcano forms the small 9 x 3.7 E-W elongated Anatahan Island in the northern Marianas, about 120 km north of Saipan, the regional Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands capital. The volcano is at the southern end of the 1500 km long chain of volcanoes formed by the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction-zone volcanic arc. The island is only a tiny fraction (about 1%) of the volcano's entire volume, which rises 3700 m from the sea floor and has a basal diameter of 35 km. It is topped by a 5x2.3 km wide E-W elongated summit caldera. Its principal crater is a 1.4x1.2 km wide and 200 m deep pit crater in the eastern part of the caldera. The highest point of the island is on the western rim. The first known volcanic activity occurred in 2003, when the volcano came back to life, and has been in a state of frequent eruptions since then. -> See whole entry

Andahua-Orcopampa (Volcano)

The Andahua-Orcopampa volcanic field is a 50 km x 30 km large field of monogenetic vents in the Andahua valley area, 20 km ENE of Nevados de Coropuna stratovolcano. It is known locally as the "Valley of the Volcanoes". The field contains scoria cones and lava flows, some of which are very young and from historic eruptions. Strombolian eruptions and lava flows have destroyed buildings from the time of the Incas, and there were uncertain reports of activity in 1913. Lava flows have repeatedly dammed the Río Andagua valley modified the local topography. -> See whole entry

andesite (Volcanology)

Andesite is a gray to black volcanic rock with between about 52 and 63 weight percent silica (SiO2). Andesites are typical for lava domes and stratovolcanoes. -> See whole entry

Anjuisky (Volcano)

Anjuisky volcano is a cinder cone in the south Anjuisky Range east of Kolyma River. Anjuisky cinder cone is 120 m high and has a 300 m wide and 75 m deep crater. -> See whole entry

Antillanca (Volcano)

The Antillanca group of stratovolcanoes is located 100 km NE of Puerto Montt in central Chile, at the eastern shore of Rupanco Lake. The cluster consists of scoria cones, maars and small stratovolcanoes and covers an area of 380 sq km. The most prominent volcanic edifice is the Casablanca stratovolcano which erupted about 2910 and 2260 years ago. Older stratovolcanoes of the Antillanca group include Sarnoso volcano on the SW side and Fiuchá volcano on the NW side. Geothermal areas are found in various spots on the NW side of the group. (source: USGS/GVP)

Antisana (Volcano)

Antisana volcano is a large, glacier covered stratovolcano 50 km SE Quito, Ecuador. It is located on the eastern margin of the Cordillera Real, at the latitude where the volcanic chain of the Northern Volcanic Zone is widest. Antisana is one of the largest volcanoes and highest peaks in Ecuador. The Antisana complex contains 2 generations of volcanic edifices, an older volcano cut by calderas and eroded by glaciers and a young cone. The only confirmed historical eruption was from 1801 to 1802, when a lava flow was erupted from a vent NNE of the summit. Antisana volcano is iside the Condor Bioreserve as part of the Antisana Ecological Reserve which comprises and area of 296,000 acres. -> See whole entry

Antofagasta de la Sierra (Volcano)

Antofagasta de la Sierra is a young volcanic field in Catamarca, NW Argentina, located SW of Beltran volcano and between the Salar de Antofalla on the west and the massive Cerro Galán caldera on the east. The field contains some of the youngest volcanic vents of vents of the Argentinian Puna region. It contains young looking basaltic-andesite scoria cones and recent-looking lava flows, which could be only a few thousand years old. Nearby Salar de Antofalla volcanic field contains scoria cones and lava flows east of the NE-SW-trending Salar de Antofalla. It, too, looks young, but no precise ages are known.

Antuco (Volcano)

Antuco volcano in central Chile rises majestically above the SW shore of Laguna de la Laja. Antuco is one of Chile's more active volcanoes. Mild explosive eruptions were recorded in the 18th and 19th centuries from both summit and flank vents, and historical lava flows have traveled into the Río Laja drainage. -> See whole entry

Aoga-shima (Volcano)

Aoga-shima volcano (青ヶ島, Aogashima) is a stratovolcano forming a beautiful small 2.5 x 3.5 km island with steep cliffs in the Izu island chain, 300 km south of Tokyo. The dominantly basaltic Aoga-shima volcano contains a complex caldera (Ikenosawa Crater) with a diameter of 1.7 x 1.5 km. 2 cones were built inside the caldera during the volcano's last eruptions in 1781-85. Activity of Aogashima volcano includes pyroclastic flows and lava flows from both summit and flank vents. -> See whole entry

Apagado (Volcano)

Volcán Apagado (also known as Hualiaque) is a young cinder cone 50 km SE of Puerto Montt town. It is located in the center of the peninsula between the Gulf of Ancud and the Reloncaví estuary, west of Hornopirén volcano and SW of Yate volcano in southern Chile. The summit contains a well preserved unvegetated crater 360 x 400 m in diameter and there is a small lava flow from a second cone nearby. The age of the cones is unknown, but judging from the young morphology, it could be Holocene.

Apaneca Range (Volcano)

Apaneca Range (Cuyanausul Range) is a group of E-W trending stratovolcanoes and geothermal areas located in western El Salvador, between the Santa Ana complex and the Guatemala border, about 6 km SE of Ahuachapin town. The volcanoes are basaltic-to-andesitic and Pleistocene and Holocene in age. -> See whole entry

Apastepeque (Volcano)

Apastepeque volcano is a young volcanic field 8 km north of San Vicente town in central El Salvador. The Volcanic features contains about 24 closely spaced cinder cones, lava flows, lava domes, and maars. The latter are now filled by lakes, such as Laguna de Apastepeque and Laguna Chalchuapán. -> See whole entry

Apo (Volcano)

Apo volcano is the highest mountain in the Philippines, and its name means "Master" or "Grandfather". There are no known historic eruptions, but the volcano is considered still active. -> See whole entry

Apoyeque (Volcano)

Apoyeque volcano forms the broad Chiltepe Peninsula in western Nicaragua and extends into south central Lake Managua The Apoyeque volcano is part of a larger volcanic complex and consists of a low 500 m high shield cut by a 2.8 km wide and 400 deep lake-filled caldera and a 2.5 x 3 km wide explosion crater, the lake-filled Xiloá (Jiloá) maar, immediately SE of Apoyeque. Present activity consists of active fumaroles in Laguna Xiloá and at the northern caldera rim. -> See whole entry

Apoyo (Volcano)

Apoyo is a lake filled caldera immediately SE of Masaya volcano and near Granada town in Nicaragua. The scenic caldera is 7 km wide and surrounded by steep walls rising 100 m at the eastern rim and 500 m at the west. The surface of Laguna de Apoyo is only 78 m above sea level. Measured from the bottom of the lake, the caldera is about 600 m deep. -> See whole entry

Aracar (Volcano)

Aracar volcano is a probably still active stratovolcano in NW Argentina close to the border with Chile. The volcano has a well-preserved 1.5 km wide summit crater with a small crater lake and steep eroded flanks. It is not known whether there has been activity in the Holocene (past 12,000 years). -> See whole entry

Aragats (Volcano)

Aragats is a large andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcano in NW Armenia about 40 km NW of the capital city of Yerevan. -> See whole entry

Ararat (Volcano)

The 5165-m-high, double-peaked stratovolcano Mount Ararat, also known as Agri Dagi, is Turkey's highest, largest volume, and easternmost volcano. -> See whole entry

Arayat (Volcano)

Arayat is a forested stratovolcano above the flat Central Plain of Luzon Island and located NE of Angeles city, Philippines. It belongs to the Eastern Volcanic Chain, which includes Mounts Balungao, Cuyapo, Amorong and Arayat volcanoes. Mt. Arayat's cone is probably built upon an older crater of 900 m diameter, whose remnants form the northern (1026 m) and southern (920 m) peaks. There are no known eruptions in historic times, but weak fumarolic activity is present on the NW summit of Arayat volcano. -> See whole entry

Arenal (Volcano)

Arenal, a major tourist attraction in Costa Rica, is one of the most active volcanoes of Central America. Since a major eruption in 1968, it has been in near-continuous activity building a lava dome and displaying mild explosive activity from the summit crater. -> See whole entry

Arenales (Volcano)

Cerro Arenales is an isolated stratovolcano in southern Chile, located in the Northern Patagonian Ice Field 140 km SSW of Hudson volcano and 195 km north of Lautaro volcano. The volcano was recognized as a volcano during a 1963 expedition traversing the Northern Patagonian Ice Field led by Eric Shiptononly. The only known eruption was in early 1979 and was detected by a small tephra deposit observed blanketing the icecap on the SW flank on a satellite image from 8 March 1979. Note: an active volcano with a similar name Arenal is located in Costa Rica.

Arintica (Volcano)

Arintica volcano is a stratovolcano in the Arica y Parinacota region of Chile near the border with Bolivia. There are no known Holocene eruptions, and the volcano might be extinct, although little is known about it.

Arjuno-Welirang (Volcano)

Arshan (Volcano)

Arshan volcano is a newly discovered active volcanic field in the central Da Hinggan Mountains of Inner Mongolia in NE China, 70 km from the border with Mongolia. The field contains more than 40 cinder cones, tephra layers and lava flows. The most recent volcanic eruptions occurred from the perfectly preserved 362 m high Yanshan cone and the 140 m deep Gaoshan crater. These vents produced basaltic lava flows to the northwest and formed natural dams blocking branches of the Halahahe river, creating 6 lakes.

Asama (Volcano)

Asama volcano is the most active volcano of Honshu and one of the volcanoes with the longest recorded history of documented eruptions. It is located 130 km from Tokyo in central Honshu, overlooking the resort town of Karuizawa. Asama's activity is typically explosive, including frequent strombolian to vulcanian activity. It has had several major eruptions, including 2 plinian eruptions in 1108 and 1783 AD. -> See whole entry

ash (Volcanology:volcanic ash)

Volcanic ash is the term for all fine-grained volcanic products (smaller than 2 mm), normally magma or older rock fragmented during explosive eruptions. -> See whole entry

ashfall (Volcanology:volcanic ash fall)

Volcanic ash fall is the deposition of ash from the air from eruption plumes emitted during explosive volcanic eruptions.

Ashi Shan (Volcano)

Ashi Shan is the youngest volcano in China and erupted in 191. It is part of the Kunlun volcanic group in NW Tibet. It is located, along with other young cinder cones, in the area around Ashi (Aqqikkol) and Wuluke (Ulugkol) lakes

Askja (Volcano)

Aso (Volcano)

Aso volcano in central Kyushu Island in southwestern Japan is one of the world's most active volcanoes. In recent years, it has been the site of frequent ash eruptions. Aso is no single edifice, but a complex of active vents in the center of a large 24 km wide caldera. -> See whole entry

asthenosphere (Geology)

The uppermost viscous layer of the mantle where pressure and temperature conditions can allow partial melting of the mantle rocks, which forms magmas. -> See whole entry

Atacazo (Volcano)

Atacazo volcano is part of the Atacazo–Ninahuilca Volcanic Complex in the Western Cordillera of Ecuador and located 10 km southwest of the capital of Ecuarod, Quito. The andesitic Atacazo stratovolcano is a successor of the older La Carcacha stratovolcano. It was built above a 6 km wide and 900 m deep caldera. The caldera is breached to the SW and contains 3 Holocene dacitic domes. The youngest lava dome, Ninahuilca, erupted about 2300 years ago. 2 andesitic lava domes are also found on the SE flank. Several large Plinian eruptions have occurred at the volcano during the past 10,000 years and accompanied the growth of the lava domes. The formation of the most recent dome, Ninahuilca Chico, was accompanied by explosive eruptos that produced pyroclastic flows that flowed up to 35 km distance through valleys towards the west. -> See whole entry

Athens (Place)

Capital of Greece, located on the Attika peninsula of the southern mainland -> See whole entry

Atlin (Volcano)

Atlin is a group of young cinder cones and lava flows on the Teslin Plateau east of Lake Atlin in western British Columbia, Canada. The largest cone is 1880-m-high Ruby Mountain (named for the brilliantly colored tephra deposits), which has been partially eroded by glaciation. -> See whole entry

Atsonupuri (Volcano)

Atsonupuri volcano is a mostly basaltic stratovolcano in the southern Kurile Islands, Russia, located ca. 150 km NE of Hokkaido, Japan. Atsonupuri volcano forms a prominent peninsula at the SW side of Iturup Island connected by a 30 m low isthmus. The volcano has often had strombolian eruptions such as its historic eruptions and produced a few lava flows. -> See whole entry

Aucanquilcha (Volcano)

Aucanquilcha is a massive stratovolcano in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes in northern Chile. Volcán Aucanquilcha (also known as Cerro Aucancquilche) is the youngest of about 20 volcanoes and cones that form the Aucanquilcha Volcanic Cluster and one the largest volcanoes of northern Chile. The world's highest permanent human settlement was located below a sulfur mine in the summit region of Cerro Aucanquilcha at an elevation of 5500 m. The mine was operated between 1913 and 1990's. The volcano also has one of the world's highest roads reaching 5900 m altitude. Aucanquilcha The youngest lava flows of the volcano are younger than 10,000 years, and overlie glacial morains on the upper southern flanks. At present, there is fumarolic activity at the volcano. -> See whole entry

Auckland Field (Volcano)

The Auckland Volcanic Field directly underlies the largest city of New Zealand and consists of more than 50 basaltic cones, maars and lava flows. It covers an elliptical area of 29 (N-S) x 16.5 (E-W) km and has been active for the past 140,000 years, during which is has produced about 7 cubic km of mostly basaltic lava. The last eruption was as recently as about 600 years ago when the cone of Rangitoto Island was formed. About 20 eruptions have occurred during the past 20,000 years, suggesting an average recurrence interval of approx. 1000 years. Since eruptions could (and likely will) occur again in the future, it is a considerable hazard to Auckland city, especially since the time between first signs (seismic swarms, ground movements, gas emissions) to an eruption could be relatively short (weeks to months). -> See whole entry

Augustine (Volcano)

Augustine is the most active volcano of the eastern Aleutian arc. It consists of several overlapping lava domes that frequently produce explosive eruptions and are notorious for collapsing, producing glowing avalanches (block and ash flows). Augustine volcano had a devastating eruption 1883 when large parts of the summit dome complex collapsed. In the following century, several eruptions associated with dome growth have restored the volcano's height again. Historical eruptions after that date were typically explosive, producing pyroclastic pumice flows and block-and-ash flows, followed by regrowth of the lava domes. -> See whole entry

Avachinsky (Volcano)

Avachinsky towering above Petropavlovsk, Kamchatka's largest city, is one of Kamchatka's most active volcanoes. It typically erupts every few years to decades, often producing ash flows and lahars. -> See whole entry

Averna Lake (Place)

The volcanic lake Averna in the Phlegrean fields near Naples -> See whole entry

Awu (Volcano)

The massive Gunung Awu stratovolcano occupies the northern end of Great Sangihe Island, the largest of the Sangihe arc. Deep valleys that form passageways for lahars dissect the flanks of the 1320-m-high volcano, which was constructed within a 4.5-km-wide caldera. -> See whole entry

Azas Plateau (Volcano)

The Azas Plateau (also known as the (Northeast) Tuva or Khamsara-Biykhem Plateau) is a large volcanic field is west of the SW tip of Lake Baikal and north of the border with Mongolia. The volcanic field contains cinder cones and lava flows, some of which are less than 10,000 years old. -> See whole entry

Azores (Place)

Azufral (Volcano)

Azufral volcano (Azufral de Túquerres) is a stratovolcano in southern Colombia with a 2.5x3 km wide caldera 35 km SW of Galeras volcano. The last eruption took place about 1000 years ago. -> See whole entry

Azuma (Volcano)

Azuma volcano is a group of small stratovolcanoes, shield volcanoes, domes and cinder cones in NE Honshu, Japan, west of Fukushima city. Historical eruptions were mostly small phreatic eruptions from the Issaikyo volcano at the northern end of the Higashi-Azuma volcanic complex. The beautiful symmetrical Azuma-Kofuji crater and a nearby fumarolic area at southeast slope containing the 200 m wide Oana crater are the most prominent features of Issaikyo volcano and along with Goshiki-numa and Oke-numa crater lakes popular tourist destinations. Oana crater has produced several phreataic eruptions in recent decades and contains very powerful fumaroles, producing plumes rising several hundred meters high. -> See whole entry

Babuyan Claro (Volcano)

Babuyan Claro (Mt. Pangasun) is the largest and second youngest of 5 volcanoes that built up Babuyan Island, 100 km off the north coast of Luzon, Philippines. Babuyan Claro is an active stratovolcano of ca. 7 cubic km volume and has 2 summit craters of 300 and 400 m in diameter.Smith volcano (Mt. Babuyan) 4 km to the NW of Babuyan Claro is the youngest volcano on the island and forms a beautiful 668 m high symmetrical basaltic-andesite cinder cone with ca. 3 cubic km volume. Both Babuyan Claro and Smith volcanoes have apparently been active in historical time, although it is not always certain which volcano erupted. Eruptions at Babuyan Claro are typically strombolian and/or phreatomagmatic. The Askedna Hot Spring is located at the southern base of Babuyan Claro. -> See whole entry

Bachelor (Volcano)

Mount Bachelor (formerly known as Bachelor Butte) in central Oregaon is a symmetrical stratovolcano, which is part of a 25 km long volcanic chain SE of South Sister. The chain is aligned N-S and consists of the main volcano of Mt Bachelor itself, cinder cones, small shield volcanoes, and lava flows. The youngest eruption (dated by comparison with known dates of overlying and underlying layers) occurred about 6000 years ago at the Egan scoria cone on the north flank. It produced a lava flow that overlies (=is younger than) ash from the 6850 year BP eruption of Crater Lake. -> See whole entry

Baegdu Synonym of: Baitoushan(Volcano)

Bagana (Volcano)

Bagana volcano on Bougainville Island is one of the world's most active volcanoes. It has erupted frequently since its discovery in 1842. It is located on a remote part of central Bougainville Island in the Northern Solomon Province of Papua New Guinea. Bagana volcano is a massive, symmetrical, roughly 1750-m-high cone built largely by rapid accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The present-day cone might only be 300 years old. Major eruptions occurred in 1950, 1952, and 1966. Bagana has been in near- continuous activity since 1972, creating slow-moving lava flows, and occasionally ash explosions that sometimes produce pyroclastic flows. The volcano has been in near-continuous activity since the earliest records from the 18th century. -> See whole entry

Baishan Synonym of: Pechan(Volcano)

Baitoushan (Volcano)

Changbaishan (or Baitoushan) volcano is a large stratovolcano at the NE China - N Korean border and is and the most active in China. It is also known as Tianchi, or in Korean as Baegdu or P'aektu-san (Paektusan) volcano. One of the largest explosive eruptions in the world during the past 10,000 years occurred around 969 ±20 AD and is known as the Baitoushan eruption. It erupted about 30 cubic km of magma, about half as much as Tambora in 1815 AD or 3 times as much as Krakatau in 1883. The eruption produced rhyolitic and trachytic pumice and ash fall as far as northern Japan, and formed part of the present-day caldera. Small eruptions have been recorded in historic times since the 15th century, the last being a small explosion in April 1903. Out of China's 14 active volcanoes, Baitoushan is considered the most dangerous volcano. The major hazard are lahars from the huge lake in the 5-km-wide caldera that could threaten the mostly Korean population of about 100,000 living near or on the slopes of the volcano, as well as the many tourists visiting the volcano in summer. -> See whole entry

Bakanovi (Volcano)

Bakanovi volcano is an extinct volcano 16 km east of Bagana volcano on Bougainville Island, Papua New Guinea. The small volcano is deeply eroded and was built above an eroded 4 km diameter caldera. -> See whole entry

Balagan-Tas (Volcano)

Balagan-Tas volcano (also known as Indigirsky) is a cinder cone west of the town Zashiversk, about 1300 km SSW of Bennet Island in Siberia. It is located at the Indikirika River near the northwest boundary of Momo-Selenniak depression. The volcano erupted basaltic lava flows. A historic eruption is reported to have taken place in 1775, but not included in the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Database.

Balatukan (Volcano)

Balatukan (also known as Balingoan or Balatocan) is a massive compound stratovolcano on the SW shore of Gingoog Bay, 15 km SW of Gingoog city in north-central Mindanao, opposite Camiguin Island, Philippines. Lava flows on its flanks are 140,000 years old and it is not known whether there are younger volcanic products. Although the volcano still has fumarolic activity, it might be extinct, as the strong degree of erosion of its flanks suggests.

Balbi (Volcano)

Balbi is a large stratovolcano and the highest point on Bougainville Island, Northern Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea. It is not certain whether the volcano has erupted in historic times, as some local traditions suggest. An active fumarole field is located at Balbi's 600 m wide summit crater and on its western flank. -> See whole entry

Bald Knoll (Volcano)

Bald Knoll is the youngest of a group of basaltic cinder cones on the SW part of the Paunsaugunt Plateau in southern Utah, between the southern end of Bryce Canyon National Park and the western margin of Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. The Bald Knoll cinder cone probably erupted only a few thousands years ago. It has an intact crater, which has produced a massive youthful-looking lava flow that traveled about 12 km to the SSE. Buck Knoll and Black Knoll are 2 other cinder cones to the west, located on the western side of Kanab Creek.

Baluan (Volcano)

Baluan volcano forms the a small 5.5 km wide circular Baluan Island located south of Manus Island. It is the subarial part of the southernmost and largest single volcano in the St Andrew Strait in the Bismarck Sea northwest of New Britain. Baluan is mainly basaltic in composition. The island is densely forested and the volcano contains a large 1 x 0.5 km elliptic vegetated summit crater (Sabroma) and several flank vents. Some of these might be less than 10,000 years old. There are warm springs along the coast which is surrounded by reefs. The only historical activity is an uncertain report of a submarine eruption near the island in 1931. -> See whole entry

Baluran (Volcano)

Baluran is the easternmost volcano in Java and occupied the NE tip of the island. Gunung Baluran is a small andestic volcano with a broad U-shaped crater breached to the NE. Baluran is located in the Baluran National Park which covers 25,000 hectares and is famous for its abundant wildlife including buffalo, deer, banteng, leaf monkeys, monitor lizards, squirrels, fruit bats, civet cats, and leopards.

Balut (Volcano)

Balut volcano (also known as Sanguil) is a small island of the Sarangani group south of the Batulaki Peninsula at the south end of Mindanao Island in the Philippines. The age of the last activity on Balut volcano is unknown, but hot springs and thermal areas are active on the W and SW flanks of the volcano.

Bam (Volcano)

Bam volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in Papua New Guinea. A mostly submerged stratovolcano forms the small 2.4 km x 1.6 km oval shaped Bam Island. Bam volcano belongs to the Bismarck volcanic arc north of New Guinea. Bam is the SE-most of the Schouten Islands and ocated 40 km NNE of the mouth of the Sepik River. Bam volcano contains 2 peaks, the NW peak being the active summit, and the SE peak an older cone and slightly lower. The oval 300 m diameter and 180 m deep summit crater of Bam is free of vegetation due to frequent and recent volcanic activity. The crater has steep walls with exposed lava flows dipping inwards. The historic eruptions, recorded since 1872, were small to moderate vulcanian eruptions from the summit crater. Hot springs are found on the island. -> See whole entry

Bamaoqiongzong (Volcano)

Bamaoqiongzong volcano is a large shield volcano of unknown, but Quarternary age in NE Tibet. It covers an area of 300 sq km and contains a perfectly preserved edifice NE of the summit and a lava flow that overlies Quaternary lake deposits.

Bamus (Volcano)

Bamus volcano (also known as South Son, Ulawun being the father) is a symmetrical stratovolcano SW of Ulawun volcano, 16 km inland from Stettin Bay. The volcano is thickly covered by rainforest and fern thickets. The last confirmed activity of Bamus was around 1888, as villagers describe in local accounts. -> See whole entry

Banahaw (Volcano)

Banahaw volcano is a complex of 3 volcanoes 80 km SE of Manila, Philippines. The Banahaw volcanic complex includes Mt Banahaw (2158 m), San Cristobal (1470 m), and Banhao de Lucban (1870 m) volcanoes. Mild explosive eruptions might still occur at the Banahaw volcano complex, although none of the reports of historic activity can be verified by deposits or credited sources. -> See whole entry

Banda Api (Volcano)

Banda Api volcano forms a small isolated 3-km-wide island in the Banda Sea, Indonesia, 130 km south of Makulu Island. The volcano rises 4000 m from the sea floor and is the most recent and very active cone of a 7 km wide volcanic caldera mostly under water. It is one of the most active volcanoes in the region and is known for violent activity including tall ash emissions, lava fountaining, strombolian explosions and occasional lava flows, some of which which have reached the sea. Because of its (for Indonesia) unusually effusive behavior and frequent activity, Banda Api has also been given the nickname "Etna of the Banda Sea". -> See whole entry

Bandai (Volcano)

Bandai volcano (Bandai-san), one of Japan's most known active volcanoes, is an complex andesitic stratovolcano rising above the north shore of Lake Inawashiro. The volcano is located in the southern part of the NE Honshu volcanic arc. The last magma was erupted at Bandai about 25,000 years ago, but during the past 5000 years, 4 major phreatic explosions have occurred at the volcano. 2 of them occurred in historical time, in 806 and 1888. In 1888, the youngest edifice of Bandai, Ko-Bandai, collapsed in a catastrophic way after a large phreatic eruption, producing a debris avalanche that buried several villages and formed several large lakes. Seen from the south, Bandai presents a conical profile, but much of the north side of the volcano is missing as a result of the collapse of Ko-Bandai volcano during the 1888 eruption. -> See whole entry

Banua Wuhu (Volcano)

Banua Wuhu is a submarine volcano in the Sangihe Islands, Indonesia, 45 km south of Awu. The volcano rises more than 400 m from the sea floor and almost reaches the surface, forming a shallow shoal at 5 m depth. Banua Wuhu, during some of its eruptions, has created temporary islands, which were eroded subsequently by wave action. Adjacent Mahengetang island belongs to the same volcanic edifice. Separate vents are found to the northeast (Kahakitang) and north (Kalama) of Banua Wuhu. -> See whole entry

Baransky (Volcano)

Baransky volcano (Sashiusu-dake in Japanese) is a stratovolcano in the center of Iturup Island, southern Kuriles. Only one historical eruption occurred in 1951 and consisted of weak explosions in the summit crater. Strong fumarolic activity is in the summit and several flank craters. A geothermal field is found on the SW flank and contains hot springs and geysers. During a geothermal exploration in 1992 in this field, a small hydrothermal explosion took place inside an exploratory well and the exploration was abandoned. -> See whole entry

Bárcena (Volcano)

Barcena volcano forms the southern part and most significant feature of Isla San Benedicto, the 3rd largest and north-easternmost of the 4 Islas Revillagigedo islands about 350 km south of Cabo San Lucas, Baja California. The volcano formed by eruptions during 1952-53 and consists in a 700 m wide and 330 m high tuff cone with a circular crater and a spectacular lava delta on the east side formed by a trachytic lava flow that breached the crater and entered the sea. The eruption was the first historic eruption witnessed in the eastern Pacific Ocean. -> See whole entry

Bárdarbunga (Volcano)

Bardarbunga (Bárðarbunga) is a large central volcano lying underneath Iceland's 500-m thick Vatnajokull glacier in the center of the country. It is located at the junction between the eastern and northern volcanic rift zones in the area where the present-day center of the mantle hot spot beneath Iceland is thought to be. Bardarbunga has had about 300-400 eruptions during the past 10,000 years which includes only 23 eruptions historic times (approx the past 1000 years), i.e. it seems to erupt currently at rates of approx. twice per century, the last one having occurred in 1910. A massive explosive-effusive eruption (VEI 6) in 1477 resulted in a large ash and pumice fall-out deposit. Approx 8600 years ago, Bardarbunga produced the largest known lava flow during the past 10,000 years on earth (more than 21 cubic kilometers of volume). The lava was erupted from the Veidivötn fissure system and traveled more than 100 km to the south coast. -> See whole entry

Barren Island (Volcano)

Baru (Volcano)

Barú volcano (also called Volcán de Chiriqui) is an active volcano 35 km east of the border to Costa Rica in the Talamanca Range of western in Panama. The complex, mainly andesitic stratovolcano is Panama´s highest peak. A large explosive eruption occurred at about 700 AD destroyed settlements around the volcano. Excavations at the Cerro Punta archaeological site NW of the volcano have brought back to life their ruins. The only historical eruption of Barú was an explosive eruption reported from the mid 16th century, but radiocarbon-dated tephra samples suggest that there was some activity less than 500 years ago. Volcán Barú is the youngest major volcano in Panamá and there are geothermal exploration projects under way. -> See whole entry

Bas Dong Nai (Volcano)

Bas Dong Nai volcano (also known as the Xuan Loc Plateau) is a volcanic field in SE Vietnam, east of Ho Chi Minh city (Saigon). It could be less than 10,000 years old and is the southernmost volcanic area in mainland Vietnam. Suzanna Mount is a well-preserved 180 m high basaltic cone of prehistoric age.

basalt (Volcanology)

The most common type of volcanic rock, with a relatively low silica content and typically erupted at shield volcanoes. -> See whole entry

base surge (Volcanology)

Batu Tara (Volcano)

Batur (Volcano)

Batur is the most active volcano on the popular tourist island of Bali and one of Inondesia's more active ones. During the past centuries, Batur has had a number of small eruptions every few years. Thanks to the scenic beauty of the caldera with its lake and the cone of Batur, it is one of Bali's most popular destinations. -> See whole entry

Bayonnaise Rocks (Volcano)

Bayonnaise Rocks volcano (ベヨネース列岩 Beyonēsu-retsugan) is an active submarine volcano in the Izu Islands ca. 400 km south of Tokyo. The volcano has a large 8-9 km wide caldera whose highest point forms a few rocks rising just above sea level. The volcano is known for its submarine eruptions which sometimes produce temporary islands. Most of its frequent eruptions have occurred at Myojin-sho, a large young lava dome on the NE rim of the caldera. In 1952, an explosive eruption at Myojin-sho destroyed a Japanese research vessel, killing all 31 people on board. There is only sparse vegetation on the Bayonnaise Rocks, but the islands are an important resting place for migratory birds. Located in the Kuroshio Current, the waters around have abundant sea life and are popular with sports fishermen. -> See whole entry

Bazman (Volcano)

Bazman volcano is a stratovolcano in SE Iran, 180 km SSW of the city of Zahedan. The volcano has a well-preserved 500 m wide summit crater with minor fumaroles, which suggest it could be still active. -> See whole entry

Belirang-Beriti (Volcano)

The compound Belerang-Beriti volcano rises above the Semalako Plain in SW Sumatra, forming a NW-SE-trending massif that contains a 1.2-km-wide crater breached to the NE. -> See whole entry

Belknap (Volcano)

Belknap Crater volcano is located near McKenzie Pass, north of the Three Sisters volcanoes in Central Oregon. It is the center and source of one of the largest number of geologically recent eruptions in the Cascade Range. It was very active between about 3000 and 1500 years ago. The McKenzie highway 242 crosses the barren lava fields on the SE flank and offers with spectacular views toward Mt. Jefferson and the Three Sisters volcanoes. -> See whole entry

bentonite (Minerals)

Bentonite is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate generally impure clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite. -> See whole entry

Berutarube (Volcano)

Berutarube is an andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcano on the SW tip of Iturup Island (Kuriles). It has gentle slopes which are deeply eroded by glacial valleys. Funaroles and sufur deposits occur in the inner walls of the central crater. -> See whole entry

Besar (Volcano)

Gunung Besar is a 1899-m-high volcano in SE Sumatra with a minor sulfur deposit in its crater. -> See whole entry

Bezymianny (Volcano)

Bezymianny ("unnamed") was considered extinct until it erupted violently in 1955-56, after a slumber of probably 1000 years. It is one of the most active volcanoes in Kamchatka. The eruption followed a massive flank failure (similar to Mt. St. Helens eruption in 1980) which removed a 0.5 sq km sector of the volcano. -> See whole entry

Bibinoi (Volcano)

Bibinoi volcano (Bukit Bibinoi, Bibinoi Hill) on the SE tip of Bacan Island is the largest and SE most of 3 volcanoes on the island, located off the south coast of Halmahera Island, Indonesia. Two other, smaller volcanic centres are Songsu and Lansa. Binibnoi is separated from the Amasing volcanic complex to the NW by the metamorphic (i.e. non volcanic) Sibela Mountain range.

Bichbalick Synonym of: Pechan(Volcano)

Biliran (Volcano)

Biliran volcano comprises the whole 20x35 km Island of Biliran which is formed by a group of lava domes. It is located across the narrow Biliran Strait from the northern tip of Leyte Island. Biliran volcano is at the northern end of a 170 km long volcanic chain extending SSE to Panaon Island. The only known historic activity took place on 26 September 1939 and consisted of a phreatic explosion accompanied possibly by a debris avalanche. Ash fell in Caibiran town 12 km to the E. There are many fumarole fields, hot springs, mud pools and thermal areas on Biliran.

Billy Mitchell (Volcano)

Billy Mitchell volcano is a small shield volcano, which is composed mainly of loose deposits from explosive eruptions (pyroclastic shield). The volcano is located immediately NE of Bagana volcano in central Bougainville Island. Billy Mitchell's typical eruption style are explosive eruptions from the central vent, and the volcano is remarkable for having produced some of the largest explosive eruptions in Papua New Guinea in the past 10,000 years. -> See whole entry

Binuluan (Volcano)

Binuluan volcano belongs to the Ambalatungan volcanic group and is located in the Kalinga Province, Luzon Island, Philippines. A possible steam eruption of Binuluan volcano in 1952 killed 12 people by a sulphur rich debris flow.

Bir Borhut (Volcano)

Bir Borhut volcano is an active, but almost unknown volcano in eastern Yemen near the Gulf of Aden. Old documents tell of volcanic activity in the 10th century, and it was reported to have still been "smoking" in 1813. -> See whole entry

Black Rock Desert (Volcano)

The Black Rock Desert volcanic field of a group of small volcanic fields in south central Utah, at the eastern margin of the Great Basin. It is the youngest volcanic area in Utah and contains both Utah's youngest known rhyolite dome (0.4 million years old) and its youngest lava flows, the roughly 660-year-old Ice Springs lava flows, located at Ice Springs, 15 km west of Meadow. These lava flows extend 4 km north and west from Black Rock Station. -> See whole entry

block (Volcanology:(volcanic) block)

Volcanic blocks are solidified rock fragments greater than 64 mm in diameter. Blocks commonly are ejected during explosive eruptions and consist of older pieces of the volcano's edifice, e.g. parts of the conduit, lava domes or older lava flows. -> See whole entry

Blue Lake Crater (Volcano)

Blue Lake is a series of at least 3 overlapping explosion craters (maars), located along a NE trend slightly east of the crest of the Cascade Range. The best-known crater, Blue Lake Crater contains a blue lake (800m x 300m) and is probably the youngest. It formed by an eruption about 1300 years ago. It lies immediately west of the popular recreation area of Suttle Lake. -> See whole entry

Blup Blup (Volcano)

Blup Blup volcano forms the small, forested 3.5 km wide Blup Blup Island ca. 30 km offshore from Cape Girgir on the East Sepik coastline of New Guinea. The closest town is Karau. The andesitic-dacitic volcano contains a 800 m diameter summit crater filled by thick rainforest, and possibly a lava dome on a ridge extending to the west. Lava flows with well-developed flow fronts are visible on its flanks. A small flank cone is located on the SW coast. Most activity took place from the summit crater, but the age of the last eruption is unknown, but probably less than 10,000 years ago.

Bocca Nuova (Volcano)

Bocca Nuova (= the New Mouth) is the westernmost summit crater of Etna volcano. It formed in 1968 as a small pit crater on the summit crater cone. It gradually increased in size and depth over the years. The last major eruption from Bocca Nuova occured in 1999, when lava filled the crater and overspilled onto the western flank of Mt. Etna.

Bogatyr Ridge (Volcano)

Bogatyr Ridge is a stratovolcano on SW Iturup Island, Kuriles, Russia. It consists of a chain of craters and cones and the larger Stokap volcano, astratovolcano aligned NE-SW. The andesitic Stokap volcano has 8-10 cones and explosion craters. The largest of these contains a lake. Lava flows from Stokap volcano have reached the sea on both sides, the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Okhotsk. There are no known historic eruptions, but the volcano has been active during the Holocene. --- Source: GVP Bogatyr Ridge information

Boisa (Volcano)

Boisa volcano forms a tiny island offshore from Bogia on the Madang coast. There are no known historical eruptions from Boisa volcano. It is located only 10 km NW of Manam volcano, and it is a possible that Boisa belongs to the same volcanic edifice and is supplied by the same magma chamber,- in other words, really is a side vent of Manam rather than a separate volcano. -> See whole entry

Bola (Volcano)

Bola volcano (or Mt. Wangore) is a symmetrical steep stratovolcano that forms the highest point on the Willaumez Peninsula in New Britain. There are no known recent eruptions, but the fresh morphology of the summit crater suggests that the last activity was only a few hundred years ago. -> See whole entry

bomb (Volcanology:volcanic bomb)

Ejected fragments of fresh magma larger than 64 mm in diameter, often shaped aerodynamically during their flight. -> See whole entry

Bombalai (Volcano)

Bombalai volcano in north east Borneo is the only volcano considered still possibly active of Malaysia, although its last eruptions might have been thousands of years ago. It is located close to the border with Indonesia, in the Malaysian province of Sabah, across Cowie Harbor from the the Indonesian province of Kalimantan. Bombalai cinder cone is part of a large volcanic field on the Semporna Peninsula in the NE of Borneo. Bombalai has a 300 m wide crater breached to the south and 2 young lava flows extending almost to the coast.

Bosavi (Volcano)

Mount Bosavi is an extinct volcano in a remote part of the Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Mount Bosavi is actually the collapsed cone of an extinct volcano on the Great Papuan Plateau, part of the Kikori River basin. Its caldera is approximately 4 km wide and 1 km deep. Bosavi is home to a number of unique species. The volcano is partly located in the Sulamesi Wildlife Management Area, which was declared in 2006. The mountain with its deep crater are so inaccessible that even the few local people in the Kasua tribe who live in nearby villages rarely visit the area. -> See whole entry

Boschan Synonym of: Pechan(Volcano)

Bratan (Volcano)

Bratan is a large caldera of unknown age in north-central Bali, Indonesia. It measures 11 x 6 km and contains 3 lakes - Danau Tamblimgam, Danau Buyan, and Danau Bratan. The area is know of its scenic beauty and hot springs. -> See whole entry

breadcrust bomb (Volcanology)

Volcanic bomb with a cracked surface, similar to bread, caused by the slow expansion of the interior gas bubbles while cooling. -> See whole entry

Brennisteinsfjöll volcano (Volcano)

Bridge River Cones (Volcano)

The Bridge River Cones are a field of small basaltic cinder cones in SW British Columbia, Canda. The youngest activity from this volcanic area could be less than 1500 years old. -> See whole entry

Broken Top (Volcano)

Broken Top in the Three Sisters Wilderness, Oregon, is, as the name suggests, the heavily eroded top of a probably extinct stratovolcano. -> See whole entry

Bromo (Volcano)

Mt. Bromo volcano in East Java is the active cone inside the giant Tengger caldera, one of Indonesia's most scenic locations destination in East Java, famous for its magnificient sunrise views and the panorama over the caldera with Semeru volcano in the background. -> See whole entry

Brushy Butte (Volcano)

Brushy Butte is a small, poorly studied shield volcano immediately east of Timbered Crater maar, and south-southeast of the Medicine Lake Highlands in northern California, USA.

Bukit Daun (Volcano)

Located in a sparsely populated region of Sumatra, Bukit Daun forms a twin volcano with Gedang volcano. -> See whole entry

Bukit Lumut Balai (Volcano)

Bukit Lumut Balai is a heavily eroded volcano consisting of three eruption centers, two on Bukit Lumut and one on the NE side of Bukit Balai, 5 km to the east. Large lava flows occur on the north side of Bukit Balai. -> See whole entry

Bulusan (Volcano)

Bulusan, one of the most active volcanoes in the Philippines, is Luzon's southernmost volcano. It lies at the SE end of the Bicol volcanic arc occupying the peninsula of the same name that forms the elongated SE tip of Luzon island. -> See whole entry

Buru (Volcano)

Buru volcano is a partly preserved cinder cone which rises 250 m above the surrounding swamps. it is located SW of Pago and SE of Oto. The volcano is named after the Buru river on the south side of the volcano. To the north is a swampy depression called the Buru caldera. -> See whole entry

Cabalian (Volcano)

Mount Cabalían volcano is located on the SE tip of Leyte Island, Philippines. It is is an andesitic stratovolcano with steep radial erosion valleys and ridges that are moderately to thickly vegetated. It contains a summit crater filled by a lake. The crater rim is irregular and forms 2 peaks on the S side. A recent pyroclastic flow deposit was radiocarbon dated to be only about 150 years old. Hot springs with temperatures of up to 64 deg C are found on the east and west flanks of Cabalían.

Caburgua-Huelemolle (Volcano)

Caburgua-Huelemolle volcano is a group of 4 cinder basaltic cones in central Chile: Volcanoes de Caburgua and Volcán Huelemolle, Volcán Redondo and Volcán Pichares. -> See whole entry

Cagua (Volcano)

Cagua is an active stratovolcano at the NE tip of northern Luzon Island, Philippines. It has a circular summit crater of 1.5 km diameter, with steep, 60-m-high walls, and is locally known as the "Fire Mountain". The volcano might have erupted in 1907, when strong fumarole activity was noted. A phreatic explosion in 1860 may have generated pyroclastic flows. At present, there are thermal areas near the summit crater and on the NW and NNE flanks. -> See whole entry

Caichinque (Volcano)

Caichinque volcano is a relatively small volcanic complex in northern Chile. It devides Salar Capur from Salar Talar. There are more than 6 vents that have erupted andesitic-to-dacitic lava flows. The youngest of these are found on the NE and SE sides of the Cainque stratovolcano, including one that traveled 6 km to the east and formed 2 lobes into the Salar Talar. The age of the flows is unknown and estimated between pre-historical times and Pleistocene.

Calabozos (Volcano)

Calabozos volcano in central Chile is a complex containing a large 26x14 km wide caldera, Cerro del Medio volcano at the south of the caldera, and 4 cinder cones of Descabezado Chico on the western caldera rim. The caldera was formed by repeated massive (super-volcano) eruptions 800,000, 300,000 and 150,000 years ago, each of which deposited hundreds of cubic kilometer of ash flows. -> See whole entry

Calbuco (Volcano)

Calbuco volcano, along with its neighbor Osorno, is one of Chile's most active volcanoes. It is located 11 km south of Lake Llanquihué and 30 km NE of the town of Puerto Mont in the Lake District in southern Chile. Calbuco volcano consists mainly of blocky aa lava flows and tephra layers, and its summit is truncated by a 400-500 m wide summit crater. Debris avalanches from Calbuco have reached Lake Llanquihue. One of the largest historical eruptions in southern Chile took place from Calbuco in 1893-1894. It ended with the formation of a lava dome in the summit crater. Later eruptions have enlarged the lava-dome complex. -> See whole entry

calcite (Minerals)

Calcite is a very common carbonate mineral and the most stable form of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). -> See whole entry

caldera (Volcanology)

Large crater, usually several kilometers across, formed by the collapse of the roof of a magma chamber emptied by large explosive eruptions. -> See whole entry

Caldera del Atuel (Volcano)

The large 30x45 km wide Caldera del Atuel is located in western Argentina just east of the Argentina-Chile border and 18 km SSW of the rim of Diamante caldera. -> See whole entry

Callaqui (Volcano)

Ice-capped Callaqui volcano is an elongated basaltic-andesite stratovolcano in central Chile Volcano. It has had a few small explosive eruptions in historic time, and it is known for its intense fumarolic activity. -> See whole entry

Camiguin de Babuyanes (Volcano)

Camiguin de Babuyanes volcano is a small stratovolcano on the SW tip of the 22 km long Camiguin Island in the Babuyan archipelago, 35 km off the north tip of Luzon Island. Note: A volcanic island called Camiguin is located off the north coast of Mindanao Island. -> See whole entry

Campi Flegrei (Phlegrean Fields) (Volcano)

The Campi Flegrei ("burning fields") or Phlegrean Fields is a large, 13-km-wide nested caldera located under the western outskirts of the citiy of Naples and under the Gulf of Pozzuoli. It contains many volcanic centers (cinder cones, tuff rings, calderas) that have been active during the past 30-40,000 years. The volcanic field has been the site of some extremely violent eruptions in the past, although the few ones that occurred during historic times were small events. Today, there is no sign of imminent reawakening of activity, although there are abundant signs of the presence of a still active magma chamber in the forms of solfataras, warm springs, gas emissions etc. In particular, the Campi Flegrei is infamous for its frequent episodes of major ground deformation in the form of large-scale up- and downlift of the ground (bradisism, see below). -> See whole entry

Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia (Volcano)

Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia (Phlegraean Fields of the Sicily Sea) is composed of a group of submarine volcanoes SW of Sicily. -> See whole entry

Cancanajag (Volcano)

Cancajanag volcano is a complex of lava domes located 6.5 km NNW of Lobi volcano on Leyte Island, Philippines. The age of its most recent eruptions is not known, but it was classified as potentially active by PHIVOLCS.

Carrán-Los Venados (Volcano)

Carrán-Los Venados volcano in central Chile is a group of about 50 basaltic to basaltic-andesite scoria cones, maars, and a small stratovolcano. The volcanic group is broadly aligned on a 17 km long ENE-WSW trending line ESE of Lago Ranco. The volcano erupted 3 times in the 20th century, forming the Mirador scoria cone and two maars, Riñinahue and Carrán. These historical eruptions were at the intersection of the Liquine-Ofqui fault zone with the ENE-WSW alignment of volcanic centers.

Carrizozo (Volcano)

The massive Carrizozo lava flow is one of Earth's longest known lava flows that were erupted in the past 10,000 years. The basalt flow is 50 m thick, 75 km long, 1-5 km wide and was mainly fed by lava tubes. -> See whole entry

Castillo de Guanapay (Place)

The Castillo de Santa Bárbara, also called Castillo de Guanapay, is situated on the Canarian island Lanzarote in the municipality and townTeguise. -> See whole entry

Cay (Volcano)

Volcán Cay is a probably still active stratovolcano in southern Chile, 15 km NE of Maca volcano and NW of the town of Puerto Aisén. Like Maca and Hudson volcanoes, Cay is one of the large composite central volcanoes in the South Andean Volcanic Zone. Cay volcano is basaltic and dacitic in composition. It contains an explosion crater open to the east, and about a half dozen explosion craters and pyroclastic cones along a fissure trending SW of the summit. Another 10 basaltic cinder cones are located along a second parallel fissure 5 km to the SE, which is part of the major regional Liquiñe-Ofqui fault zone. -> See whole entry

Cayambe (Volcano)

Nevado Cayambe is a massive volcanic complex in northern Ecuador, 60 km NE of the city of Quito and only 15 km E of the 20,000 inhabitants city of Cayambe. The equator passes through its southern flank. The andesitic-dacitic volcano is located on the isolated western edge of the Cordillera Real in the Ecuadorian Andes, east of the Inter-Andean Valley. The volcano is capped by extensive glaciers, which descend to 4200 m on the eastern Amazonian side. It contains 2 summit lava domes located about 1.5 km apart, the western of which is the highest. Several other lava domes are located on the upper flanks and have been the source of pyroclastic flows down the lower flanks of the volcano. La Virgen is a prominent young cinder cone on the lower eastern flank, which erupted thick andesitic lava flows that reached 10 km to the east. There is only one confirmed historic eruption, during 1785-86, but recent studies have shown that the volcano has produced frequent explosive eruptions during the past 4000 years. -> See whole entry

Cayutué-La Viguería (Volcano)

Cayutué-La Viguería volcano is a volcanic field in southern Chile, south of Lake Todos los Santos. The field contains about 20 young basaltic maars and cinder cones, aligned NNE-SSW on the Liquiñe-Ofqui fault zone, a major regional N-S feature. -> See whole entry

Ceboruco (Volcano)

Cereme (Volcano)

Cereme (or Ciremai) volcano close to the north coast of Java is a symmetric stratovolcano and among the most beautiful and largest of Java's active volcanoes. It contains a deep twin crater elongated in E-W direction. Cereme's historic eruptions were infrequent, and consited mainly in mild explosive activity and mud flows from the summit crater. -> See whole entry

Cerro Auquihuato (Volcano)

Cerro Auquihuato volcano is a young, 380 m high cinder cone in southern Perú, located about 30 km NE of Sara Sara volcano and east of Río Ocona. The location on a high plateau is very remote and far from road access and little is known about the volcano. Satellite images show a young lava flow with prominent channel structures. The flow extends 9 km south of the volcano.

Cerro Azul (Volcano)

Cerro Azul (Volcano)

Cerro Azul stratovolcano in Central Chile is located at the southern end of the Descabezado Grande-Cerro Azul group of volcanoes. Its steep summit cone contains a 500 m wide crater. Cerro Azul is the site of one of the largest explosive eruptions in the 20th centuries. It erupted from the Quizapu vent on April 10-11 1932, producing a Plinian eruption column of 27-30 km (ca. 95,000 ft) height. The eruption formed a 600-700 m wide 150-m-deep crater and blanketed the region with ash. Quizapu is one of Azul's major vents and located on the northern flank of Cerro Azul. It formed in 1846 during the first historical eruption at Cerro Azul, which was accompanied by voluminous dacitic lava flows that traveled both east into the Estero Barroso valley and west into the Río Blanquillo valley. Quizapu was also the site of the massive 1932 eruption. La Resoloma Craters are 3 basaltic-andesite cinder cones on the W flank. They erupted Los Hornitos are cinder cones on the lower SW flank. Note: there are 2 volcanoes with similar names: Volcan Azul in Nicaragua, and Cerro Azul in the Galapagos Islands.

Cerro Bayo (Volcano)

Cerro Bayo is a complex volcano on the northern Chile/Argentina border. The volcano contains a young cone exactly on the border with a 400 m wide crater which has erupted two 4 km long lava flows to the north and NW. The youngest known product of the volcano are 2 dacitic lava flows that traveled to the north and were erupted from the summit crater located on the Chilean side.

Cerro Bravo (Volcano)

Cerro Bravo volcano is located 145 km NW of Bogota, Colombia, north of Nevado del Ruiz volcano. It consists of dominantly dacitic lava-domes. In the past 4000 years, the volcano has had at least 7 violent (plinian) explosive eruptions, producing pumice layers and pyroclastic flows.

Cerro Cinotepeque (Volcano)

Cerro Cinotepeque volcano is a group of 4 young cinder cones on both sides of Río Lempa, about 40 km north of San Salvador city. Cerro Cinotepeque (also spelled Cinotepec) lies south of the river, 2 other cones, Cerro Santiago and Cerro Mosquito, immediately north of the river. A fourth cone is located along the Río Gualchayo about 10 km farther north. -> See whole entry

Cerro del Azufre (Volcano)

Cerro del Azufre ("sulphur peak") volcano is a large andesitic stratovolcano in northern Chile 20 km from the border with Bolivia. It is the largest and youngest volcanic center of a 50-km-long, NW-SE-trending chain of volcanoes south of Salar de Ascotán. The volcano has 2 summits, the northern peak forming the summit and the lower southern peak (5700 m) belonging to an earlier stratovolcano, which extends towards the extinct Cerro Aguilucho volcano. It is uncertain whether the volcano has erupted in the past 10,000 years. There are a number of fresh-looking lava domes and craters, but in this region erosion and weathering are so inefficient that such craters can look young, but are actually hundreds of thousands of years old. Note: there is a volcano with a similar name - "Cordon del Azufre" in northern Chile. -> See whole entry

Cerro del Leon (Volcano)

Cerro del Leon stratovolcano is located in northern Chile next to the massive Chao lava dome.

Cerro el Ciguatepe (Volcano)

Cerro el Ciguatepe volcano is located in the Nicaraguan interior highlands, east of the Nicaraguan depression and one of several Quarternary volcanoes in this area. It contains a well-reserved 1.5 km wide summit crater, which contains a blocky lava dome and a young lava flow that has traveled from a breach in the SW side of the crater to the base of the cone. -> See whole entry

Cerro el Condor (Volcano)

Cerro el Cóndor is a large stratovolcano located in NW Argentina. it is one of the few larger volcanoes which are completely inside Argentina. The volcano was built on top of a 2.5-km-wide caldera and contains several ash cones and craters which are aligned on a NNW-SSE trend. There are several lava flows extending up to 10 km east towards the base of Peinado volcano. There are many satellitic vents, including one on the east flank with a fresh-looking lava flow that traveled 8 km to the east. The young morphology and the pristine summit crater suggest a young, Holocene age for Cerro del Cóndor.

Cerro Negro (Volcano)

Cerro Negro, Central America's youngest volcano was born in April 1850 and is one of the region's most active volcanoes. It has been producing frequent strombolian eruptions, occasional lava fountains and lava flows, and powerful explosive eruptions every few decades. Cerro Negro lies in a sparsely populated area and its eruptions have not caused significant damage nearby, but ash fall from its sometimes strong explosions have damaged farmland and houses in the populated areas of the Nicaraguan depression. -> See whole entry

Cerro Negro de Mayasquer (Volcano)

Cerro Negro de Mayasquer is an andesitic to dacitic stratovolcano on the Colombia-Ecuador border. It contains a caldera open to the west. An historical eruption reported in 1936 is probably false and may have been from Reventador volcano. Solfataras are found on the shore of a small crater lake. -> See whole entry

Cerro Nicholson (Volcano)

Cerro Nicholson volcano is a small isolated andesitic scoria cone in Southern Peru. It is located on a plain WSW of Chachani volcano and WNW of El Misti volcano. The crater of the Cerro Nicholson cone has a youthful appearance and is full of fresh-looking volcanic bombs, suggesting a relatively young age. It is similar to the Andahua scoria cones farther to the north. -> See whole entry

Cerro Overo (Volcano)

Cerro Overo is an isolated basaltic maar in northern Chile, located on the lower NE flank of Chiliques volcano, west of the Salar de Aguas Calientes, and 20 km north of Lascar volcano. The fresh morphology suggests a possible Holocene age. It contains a 600-m-wide and 80-m-deep crater. Cerro Overo erupted the least silica-rich volcanic rocks (basalts) found in this part of the Central Andes.

Cerro Pantoja (Volcano)

Cerro Pantoja is an eroded dominantly basaltic volcano along the Chile-Argentina border. The only known activity within the past 10,000 years is a cinder cone on the Argentinian side. Cerro Pantoja lies SSW of Lake Constancia located immediately west of the Argentinian border. The volcano has a dramatic steep-sided summit pinnacle.

Cerro Prieto (Volcano)

Cerro Prieto volcano is a small dacitic lava dome in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field at the northern end of the Gulf of California, 33 km south of Mexicali at the Mexican border or 175 km SE of San Diego. -> See whole entry

Cerro Singuil (Volcano)

Cerro Singüil (also known as El Cerron) is a large scoria cone SE of Volcán Chingo in the interior valley of El Salvador near the Guatemalan border. The volcano has a well-preserved summit crater and belongs to a young volcanic field of cinder cones and explosion craters. -> See whole entry

Cerros de Tocopuri (Volcano)

Cerros de Tocorpuri is a stratovolcano in northern Chile on the border with Bolivia. It contains a 1.2 km wide summit crater and a lava dome, Cerro La Torta, located on its western side.

Chacana (Volcano)

Chacana is an active stratovolcano 30 km SE of Quito, Ecuador. The volcano is one of the largest rhyolitic centers of the northern Andes and contains a large 32 km long and 24 km wide eroded caldera. Historic activity consisted of lava flows in the 18th century. -> See whole entry

Chachimbiro (Volcano)

Chachimbiro volcano is a large volcanic complex 25 km NW of the city of Ibarra in northern Ecuador. There are no historic eruptions. The most recent activity took place from the Pitzantzi lava dome and produced a wide-spread ash deposit that extends NW. -> See whole entry

Chaîne des Puys (Volcano)

The Chaîne des Puys in the Massif Central of southern France is one of Europe's youngest volcanic fields. It consists of numerous cinder cones and maars roughly arranged on a N-S trending line. The last activity occurred only about 6000 years ago, which is why the volcanoes should be considered still active although there are no signs at present of any new activity to be expected in any near future. -> See whole entry

Chaiten (Volcano)

Changbaishan Synonym of: Baitoushan(Volcano)

Chao (Volcano)

The Chao lava dome in northern Chile near Calama town is one of the largest known lava domes in the world. It measures 14.5 km in length and 350-400 m in height.

Chichinautzin (Volcano)

Chikurachki (Volcano)

Chikurachki stratovolcano forms highest peak on Paramushir Island in the northern Kurile island arc just south of Kamchatka Peninsula. It is one of the region's most active volcanoes. The volcano itself is a relatively small cone, compared to other volcanoes of the Kurile Islands, but it is built on top of the high-lying remnants of an older and now extinct predecessor volcano. The dominantlyc basaltic one has steep slopes with little erosion and a shallow summit crater of approximately 450 m in diameter. The upper part of Chikurachki's cone is red, caused by oxidized basaltic-to-andesitic scoria deposits.Eruptions of Chikurachki volcano: There are 2 principal types of eruptions from Chikurachki: 1) frequent strombolian (mildly explosive) eruptions, such as in 1958, 1961, 1964, 1973, 2002, 2003, and 2) (sub-)plinian (extremely violent and dangerous) explosive eruptions such as in 1853 and 1986. The strombolian-type eruptions usually last between several days to few weeks, and produce ejections of incandescent lava reaching 100-500 m height above the crater, but can occasionally produce ash plumes of up to 3 km height. Many eruptions from Chikurachki are accompanied by lava flows. Some have reached the sea and form capes on the NW coast, and there are young lava flows on the upper eastern flank.Basaltic plinian eruptions are a globally rare phenomenon, but common at Chikurachki volcano, and it is estimated that they have occurred every 100–200 years. Such eruptions - similar to the Icelandic Grimsvötn's eruption in June 2011 - are capable of producing tall ash plumes reaching 10-20 km and pose a significant hazard to aviation in an area densely populated by flight routes from N-America to Asia. -> See whole entry

Chiliques (Volcano)

Volcán Chiliques is a stratovolcano in northern Chile immediately south of Laguna Lejía. The volcano consists of a symmetrical cone rising 1000 m from the surrounding terrain and contains a 500 m wide crater. Several young lava flows are seen on its flanks and some might be younger than 10,000 years. The largest flow extends 5 km to the NW, but older flows have reached 10 km distance on the north flank towards Laguna Lejía. In April 2002, first signs of a possible reawakening of the volcano were detected as new hot spots inside the crater.

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