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Banahaw (Volcano)

Banahaw volcano is a complex of 3 volcanoes 80 km SE of Manila, Philippines. The Banahaw volcanic complex includes Mt Banahaw (2158 m), San Cristobal (1470 m), and Banhao de Lucban (1870 m) volcanoes. Mild explosive eruptions might still occur at the Banahaw volcano complex, although none of the reports of historic activity can be verified by deposits or credited sources. -> See whole entry

Banda Api (Volcano)

Banda Api volcano forms a small isolated 3-km-wide island in the Banda Sea, Indonesia, 130 km south of Makulu Island. The volcano rises 4000 m from the sea floor and is the most recent and very active cone of a 7 km wide volcanic caldera mostly under water. It is one of the most active volcanoes in the region and is known for violent activity including tall ash emissions, lava fountaining, strombolian explosions and occasional lava flows, some of which which have reached the sea. Because of its (for Indonesia) unusually effusive behavior and frequent activity, Banda Api has also been given the nickname "Etna of the Banda Sea". -> See whole entry

Bandai (Volcano)

Bandai volcano (Bandai-san), one of Japan's most known active volcanoes, is an complex andesitic stratovolcano rising above the north shore of Lake Inawashiro. The volcano is located in the southern part of the NE Honshu volcanic arc. The last magma was erupted at Bandai about 25,000 years ago, but during the past 5000 years, 4 major phreatic explosions have occurred at the volcano. 2 of them occurred in historical time, in 806 and 1888. In 1888, the youngest edifice of Bandai, Ko-Bandai, collapsed in a catastrophic way after a large phreatic eruption, producing a debris avalanche that buried several villages and formed several large lakes. Seen from the south, Bandai presents a conical profile, but much of the north side of the volcano is missing as a result of the collapse of Ko-Bandai volcano during the 1888 eruption. -> See whole entry

Banua Wuhu (Volcano)

Banua Wuhu is a submarine volcano in the Sangihe Islands, Indonesia, 45 km south of Awu. The volcano rises more than 400 m from the sea floor and almost reaches the surface, forming a shallow shoal at 5 m depth. Banua Wuhu, during some of its eruptions, has created temporary islands, which were eroded subsequently by wave action. Adjacent Mahengetang island belongs to the same volcanic edifice. Separate vents are found to the northeast (Kahakitang) and north (Kalama) of Banua Wuhu. -> See whole entry

Baransky (Volcano)

Baransky volcano (Sashiusu-dake in Japanese) is a stratovolcano in the center of Iturup Island, southern Kuriles. Only one historical eruption occurred in 1951 and consisted of weak explosions in the summit crater. Strong fumarolic activity is in the summit and several flank craters. A geothermal field is found on the SW flank and contains hot springs and geysers. During a geothermal exploration in 1992 in this field, a small hydrothermal explosion took place inside an exploratory well and the exploration was abandoned. -> See whole entry

Bárcena (Volcano)

Barcena volcano forms the southern part and most significant feature of Isla San Benedicto, the 3rd largest and north-easternmost of the 4 Islas Revillagigedo islands about 350 km south of Cabo San Lucas, Baja California. The volcano formed by eruptions during 1952-53 and consists in a 700 m wide and 330 m high tuff cone with a circular crater and a spectacular lava delta on the east side formed by a trachytic lava flow that breached the crater and entered the sea. The eruption was the first historic eruption witnessed in the eastern Pacific Ocean. -> See whole entry

Bárdarbunga (Volcano)

Bardarbunga (Bárðarbunga) is a large central volcano lying underneath Iceland's 500-m thick Vatnajokull glacier in the center of the country. It is located at the junction between the eastern and northern volcanic rift zones in the area where the present-day center of the mantle hot spot beneath Iceland is thought to be. Bardarbunga has had about 300-400 eruptions during the past 10,000 years which includes only 23 eruptions historic times (approx the past 1000 years), i.e. it seems to erupt currently at rates of approx. twice per century, the last one having occurred in 1910. A massive explosive-effusive eruption (VEI 6) in 1477 resulted in a large ash and pumice fall-out deposit. Approx 8600 years ago, Bardarbunga produced the largest known lava flow during the past 10,000 years on earth (more than 21 cubic kilometers of volume). The lava was erupted from the Veidivötn fissure system and traveled more than 100 km to the south coast. -> See whole entry

Barren Island (Volcano)

Baru (Volcano)

Barú volcano (also called Volcán de Chiriqui) is an active volcano 35 km east of the border to Costa Rica in the Talamanca Range of western in Panama. The complex, mainly andesitic stratovolcano is Panama´s highest peak. A large explosive eruption occurred at about 700 AD destroyed settlements around the volcano. Excavations at the Cerro Punta archaeological site NW of the volcano have brought back to life their ruins. The only historical eruption of Barú was an explosive eruption reported from the mid 16th century, but radiocarbon-dated tephra samples suggest that there was some activity less than 500 years ago. Volcán Barú is the youngest major volcano in Panamá and there are geothermal exploration projects under way. -> See whole entry

Bas Dong Nai (Volcano)

Bas Dong Nai volcano (also known as the Xuan Loc Plateau) is a volcanic field in SE Vietnam, east of Ho Chi Minh city (Saigon). It could be less than 10,000 years old and is the southernmost volcanic area in mainland Vietnam. Suzanna Mount is a well-preserved 180 m high basaltic cone of prehistoric age.

basalt (Volcanology)

The most common type of volcanic rock, with a relatively low silica content and typically erupted at shield volcanoes. -> See whole entry

base surge (Volcanology)

Batu Tara (Volcano)

Batur (Volcano)

Batur is the most active volcano on the popular tourist island of Bali and one of Inondesia's more active ones. During the past centuries, Batur has had a number of small eruptions every few years. Thanks to the scenic beauty of the caldera with its lake and the cone of Batur, it is one of Bali's most popular destinations. -> See whole entry

Bayonnaise Rocks (Volcano)

Bayonnaise Rocks volcano (ベヨネース列岩 Beyonēsu-retsugan) is an active submarine volcano in the Izu Islands ca. 400 km south of Tokyo. The volcano has a large 8-9 km wide caldera whose highest point forms a few rocks rising just above sea level. The volcano is known for its submarine eruptions which sometimes produce temporary islands. Most of its frequent eruptions have occurred at Myojin-sho, a large young lava dome on the NE rim of the caldera. In 1952, an explosive eruption at Myojin-sho destroyed a Japanese research vessel, killing all 31 people on board. There is only sparse vegetation on the Bayonnaise Rocks, but the islands are an important resting place for migratory birds. Located in the Kuroshio Current, the waters around have abundant sea life and are popular with sports fishermen. -> See whole entry

Bazman (Volcano)

Bazman volcano is a stratovolcano in SE Iran, 180 km SSW of the city of Zahedan. The volcano has a well-preserved 500 m wide summit crater with minor fumaroles, which suggest it could be still active. -> See whole entry

Belirang-Beriti (Volcano)

The compound Belerang-Beriti volcano rises above the Semalako Plain in SW Sumatra, forming a NW-SE-trending massif that contains a 1.2-km-wide crater breached to the NE. -> See whole entry

Belknap (Volcano)

Belknap Crater volcano is located near McKenzie Pass, north of the Three Sisters volcanoes in Central Oregon. It is the center and source of one of the largest number of geologically recent eruptions in the Cascade Range. It was very active between about 3000 and 1500 years ago. The McKenzie highway 242 crosses the barren lava fields on the SE flank and offers with spectacular views toward Mt. Jefferson and the Three Sisters volcanoes. -> See whole entry

bentonite (Minerals)

Bentonite is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate generally impure clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite. -> See whole entry

Berutarube (Volcano)

Berutarube is an andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcano on the SW tip of Iturup Island (Kuriles). It has gentle slopes which are deeply eroded by glacial valleys. Funaroles and sufur deposits occur in the inner walls of the central crater. -> See whole entry

Besar (Volcano)

Gunung Besar is a 1899-m-high volcano in SE Sumatra with a minor sulfur deposit in its crater. -> See whole entry

Bezymianny (Volcano)

Bezymianny ("unnamed") was considered extinct until it erupted violently in 1955-56, after a slumber of probably 1000 years. It is one of the most active volcanoes in Kamchatka. The eruption followed a massive flank failure (similar to Mt. St. Helens eruption in 1980) which removed a 0.5 sq km sector of the volcano. -> See whole entry

Bibinoi (Volcano)

Bibinoi volcano (Bukit Bibinoi, Bibinoi Hill) on the SE tip of Bacan Island is the largest and SE most of 3 volcanoes on the island, located off the south coast of Halmahera Island, Indonesia. Two other, smaller volcanic centres are Songsu and Lansa. Binibnoi is separated from the Amasing volcanic complex to the NW by the metamorphic (i.e. non volcanic) Sibela Mountain range.

Bichbalick Synonym of: Pechan (Volcano)

Biliran (Volcano)

Biliran volcano comprises the whole 20x35 km Island of Biliran which is formed by a group of lava domes. It is located across the narrow Biliran Strait from the northern tip of Leyte Island. Biliran volcano is at the northern end of a 170 km long volcanic chain extending SSE to Panaon Island. The only known historic activity took place on 26 September 1939 and consisted of a phreatic explosion accompanied possibly by a debris avalanche. Ash fell in Caibiran town 12 km to the E. There are many fumarole fields, hot springs, mud pools and thermal areas on Biliran.

Billy Mitchell (Volcano)

Billy Mitchell volcano is a small shield volcano, which is composed mainly of loose deposits from explosive eruptions (pyroclastic shield). The volcano is located immediately NE of Bagana volcano in central Bougainville Island. Billy Mitchell's typical eruption style are explosive eruptions from the central vent, and the volcano is remarkable for having produced some of the largest explosive eruptions in Papua New Guinea in the past 10,000 years. -> See whole entry

Binuluan (Volcano)

Binuluan volcano belongs to the Ambalatungan volcanic group and is located in the Kalinga Province, Luzon Island, Philippines. A possible steam eruption of Binuluan volcano in 1952 killed 12 people by a sulphur rich debris flow.

Bir Borhut (Volcano)

Bir Borhut volcano is an active, but almost unknown volcano in eastern Yemen near the Gulf of Aden. Old documents tell of volcanic activity in the 10th century, and it was reported to have still been "smoking" in 1813. -> See whole entry

Black Rock Desert (Volcano)

The Black Rock Desert volcanic field of a group of small volcanic fields in south central Utah, at the eastern margin of the Great Basin. It is the youngest volcanic area in Utah and contains both Utah's youngest known rhyolite dome (0.4 million years old) and its youngest lava flows, the roughly 660-year-old Ice Springs lava flows, located at Ice Springs, 15 km west of Meadow. These lava flows extend 4 km north and west from Black Rock Station. -> See whole entry

block (Volcanology: (volcanic) block)

Volcanic blocks are solidified rock fragments greater than 64 mm in diameter. Blocks commonly are ejected during explosive eruptions and consist of older pieces of the volcano's edifice, e.g. parts of the conduit, lava domes or older lava flows. -> See whole entry

Blue Lake Crater (Volcano)

Blue Lake is a series of at least 3 overlapping explosion craters (maars), located along a NE trend slightly east of the crest of the Cascade Range. The best-known crater, Blue Lake Crater contains a blue lake (800m x 300m) and is probably the youngest. It formed by an eruption about 1300 years ago. It lies immediately west of the popular recreation area of Suttle Lake. -> See whole entry

Blup Blup (Volcano)

Blup Blup volcano forms the small, forested 3.5 km wide Blup Blup Island ca. 30 km offshore from Cape Girgir on the East Sepik coastline of New Guinea. The closest town is Karau. The andesitic-dacitic volcano contains a 800 m diameter summit crater filled by thick rainforest, and possibly a lava dome on a ridge extending to the west. Lava flows with well-developed flow fronts are visible on its flanks. A small flank cone is located on the SW coast. Most activity took place from the summit crater, but the age of the last eruption is unknown, but probably less than 10,000 years ago.

Bocca Nuova (Volcano)

Bocca Nuova (= the New Mouth) is the westernmost summit crater of Etna volcano. It formed in 1968 as a small pit crater on the summit crater cone. It gradually increased in size and depth over the years. The last major eruption from Bocca Nuova occured in 1999, when lava filled the crater and overspilled onto the western flank of Mt. Etna.

Bogatyr Ridge (Volcano)

Bogatyr Ridge is a stratovolcano on SW Iturup Island, Kuriles, Russia. It consists of a chain of craters and cones and the larger Stokap volcano, astratovolcano aligned NE-SW. The andesitic Stokap volcano has 8-10 cones and explosion craters. The largest of these contains a lake. Lava flows from Stokap volcano have reached the sea on both sides, the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Okhotsk. There are no known historic eruptions, but the volcano has been active during the Holocene. --- Source: GVP Bogatyr Ridge information

Boisa (Volcano)

Boisa volcano forms a tiny island offshore from Bogia on the Madang coast. There are no known historical eruptions from Boisa volcano. It is located only 10 km NW of Manam volcano, and it is a possible that Boisa belongs to the same volcanic edifice and is supplied by the same magma chamber,- in other words, really is a side vent of Manam rather than a separate volcano. -> See whole entry

Bola (Volcano)

Bola volcano (or Mt. Wangore) is a symmetrical steep stratovolcano that forms the highest point on the Willaumez Peninsula in New Britain. There are no known recent eruptions, but the fresh morphology of the summit crater suggests that the last activity was only a few hundred years ago. -> See whole entry

bomb (Volcanology: volcanic bomb)

Ejected fragments of fresh magma larger than 64 mm in diameter, often shaped aerodynamically during their flight. -> See whole entry

Bombalai (Volcano)

Bombalai volcano in north east Borneo is the only volcano considered still possibly active of Malaysia, although its last eruptions might have been thousands of years ago. It is located close to the border with Indonesia, in the Malaysian province of Sabah, across Cowie Harbor from the the Indonesian province of Kalimantan. Bombalai cinder cone is part of a large volcanic field on the Semporna Peninsula in the NE of Borneo. Bombalai has a 300 m wide crater breached to the south and 2 young lava flows extending almost to the coast.

Bosavi (Volcano)

Mount Bosavi is an extinct volcano in a remote part of the Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Mount Bosavi is actually the collapsed cone of an extinct volcano on the Great Papuan Plateau, part of the Kikori River basin. Its caldera is approximately 4 km wide and 1 km deep. Bosavi is home to a number of unique species. The volcano is partly located in the Sulamesi Wildlife Management Area, which was declared in 2006. The mountain with its deep crater are so inaccessible that even the few local people in the Kasua tribe who live in nearby villages rarely visit the area. -> See whole entry

Boschan Synonym of: Pechan (Volcano)

Bratan (Volcano)

Bratan is a large caldera of unknown age in north-central Bali, Indonesia. It measures 11 x 6 km and contains 3 lakes - Danau Tamblimgam, Danau Buyan, and Danau Bratan. The area is know of its scenic beauty and hot springs. -> See whole entry

breadcrust bomb (Volcanology)

Volcanic bomb with a cracked surface, similar to bread, caused by the slow expansion of the interior gas bubbles while cooling. -> See whole entry

Brennisteinsfjöll volcano (Volcano)

Bridge River Cones (Volcano)

The Bridge River Cones are a field of small basaltic cinder cones in SW British Columbia, Canda. The youngest activity from this volcanic area could be less than 1500 years old. -> See whole entry

Broken Top (Volcano)

Broken Top in the Three Sisters Wilderness, Oregon, is, as the name suggests, the heavily eroded top of a probably extinct stratovolcano. -> See whole entry

Bromo (Volcano)

Mt. Bromo volcano in East Java is the active cone inside the giant Tengger caldera, one of Indonesia's most scenic locations destination in East Java, famous for its magnificient sunrise views and the panorama over the caldera with Semeru volcano in the background. -> See whole entry

Brushy Butte (Volcano)

Brushy Butte is a small, poorly studied shield volcano immediately east of Timbered Crater maar, and south-southeast of the Medicine Lake Highlands in northern California, USA.

Bukit Daun (Volcano)

Located in a sparsely populated region of Sumatra, Bukit Daun forms a twin volcano with Gedang volcano. -> See whole entry

Bukit Lumut Balai (Volcano)

Bukit Lumut Balai is a heavily eroded volcano consisting of three eruption centers, two on Bukit Lumut and one on the NE side of Bukit Balai, 5 km to the east. Large lava flows occur on the north side of Bukit Balai. -> See whole entry

Bulusan (Volcano)

Bulusan, one of the most active volcanoes in the Philippines, is Luzon's southernmost volcano. It lies at the SE end of the Bicol volcanic arc occupying the peninsula of the same name that forms the elongated SE tip of Luzon island. -> See whole entry

Buru (Volcano)

Buru volcano is a partly preserved cinder cone which rises 250 m above the surrounding swamps. it is located SW of Pago and SE of Oto. The volcano is named after the Buru river on the south side of the volcano. To the north is a swampy depression called the Buru caldera. -> See whole entry

Cabalian (Volcano)

Mount Cabalían volcano is located on the SE tip of Leyte Island, Philippines. It is is an andesitic stratovolcano with steep radial erosion valleys and ridges that are moderately to thickly vegetated. It contains a summit crater filled by a lake. The crater rim is irregular and forms 2 peaks on the S side. A recent pyroclastic flow deposit was radiocarbon dated to be only about 150 years old. Hot springs with temperatures of up to 64 deg C are found on the east and west flanks of Cabalían.

Caburgua-Huelemolle (Volcano)

Caburgua-Huelemolle volcano is a group of 4 cinder basaltic cones in central Chile: Volcanoes de Caburgua and Volcán Huelemolle, Volcán Redondo and Volcán Pichares. -> See whole entry

Cagua (Volcano)

Cagua is an active stratovolcano at the NE tip of northern Luzon Island, Philippines. It has a circular summit crater of 1.5 km diameter, with steep, 60-m-high walls, and is locally known as the "Fire Mountain". The volcano might have erupted in 1907, when strong fumarole activity was noted. A phreatic explosion in 1860 may have generated pyroclastic flows. At present, there are thermal areas near the summit crater and on the NW and NNE flanks. -> See whole entry

Caichinque (Volcano)

Caichinque volcano is a relatively small volcanic complex in northern Chile. It devides Salar Capur from Salar Talar. There are more than 6 vents that have erupted andesitic-to-dacitic lava flows. The youngest of these are found on the NE and SE sides of the Cainque stratovolcano, including one that traveled 6 km to the east and formed 2 lobes into the Salar Talar. The age of the flows is unknown and estimated between pre-historical times and Pleistocene.

Calabozos (Volcano)

Calabozos volcano in central Chile is a complex containing a large 26x14 km wide caldera, Cerro del Medio volcano at the south of the caldera, and 4 cinder cones of Descabezado Chico on the western caldera rim. The caldera was formed by repeated massive (super-volcano) eruptions 800,000, 300,000 and 150,000 years ago, each of which deposited hundreds of cubic kilometer of ash flows. -> See whole entry

Calbuco (Volcano)

Calbuco volcano, along with its neighbor Osorno, is one of Chile's most active volcanoes. It is located 11 km south of Lake Llanquihué and 30 km NE of the town of Puerto Mont in the Lake District in southern Chile. Calbuco volcano consists mainly of blocky aa lava flows and tephra layers, and its summit is truncated by a 400-500 m wide summit crater. Debris avalanches from Calbuco have reached Lake Llanquihue. One of the largest historical eruptions in southern Chile took place from Calbuco in 1893-1894. It ended with the formation of a lava dome in the summit crater. Later eruptions have enlarged the lava-dome complex. -> See whole entry

calcite (Minerals)

Calcite is a very common carbonate mineral and the most stable form of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). -> See whole entry

caldera (Volcanology)

Large crater, usually several kilometers across, formed by the collapse of the roof of a magma chamber emptied by large explosive eruptions. -> See whole entry

Caldera del Atuel (Volcano)

The large 30x45 km wide Caldera del Atuel is located in western Argentina just east of the Argentina-Chile border and 18 km SSW of the rim of Diamante caldera. -> See whole entry

Callaqui (Volcano)

Ice-capped Callaqui volcano is an elongated basaltic-andesite stratovolcano in central Chile Volcano. It has had a few small explosive eruptions in historic time, and it is known for its intense fumarolic activity. -> See whole entry

Camiguin de Babuyanes (Volcano)

Camiguin de Babuyanes volcano is a small stratovolcano on the SW tip of the 22 km long Camiguin Island in the Babuyan archipelago, 35 km off the north tip of Luzon Island. Note: A volcanic island called Camiguin is located off the north coast of Mindanao Island. -> See whole entry

Campi Flegrei (Phlegrean Fields) (Volcano)

The Campi Flegrei ("burning fields") or Phlegrean Fields is a large, 13-km-wide nested caldera located under the western outskirts of the citiy of Naples and under the Gulf of Pozzuoli. It contains many volcanic centers (cinder cones, tuff rings, calderas) that have been active during the past 30-40,000 years. The volcanic field has been the site of some extremely violent eruptions in the past, although the few ones that occurred during historic times were small events. Today, there is no sign of imminent reawakening of activity, although there are abundant signs of the presence of a still active magma chamber in the forms of solfataras, warm springs, gas emissions etc. In particular, the Campi Flegrei is infamous for its frequent episodes of major ground deformation in the form of large-scale up- and downlift of the ground (bradisism, see below). -> See whole entry

Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia (Volcano)

Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia (Phlegraean Fields of the Sicily Sea) is composed of a group of submarine volcanoes SW of Sicily. -> See whole entry

Cancanajag (Volcano)

Cancajanag volcano is a complex of lava domes located 6.5 km NNW of Lobi volcano on Leyte Island, Philippines. The age of its most recent eruptions is not known, but it was classified as potentially active by PHIVOLCS.

Carrán-Los Venados (Volcano)

Carrán-Los Venados volcano in central Chile is a group of about 50 basaltic to basaltic-andesite scoria cones, maars, and a small stratovolcano. The volcanic group is broadly aligned on a 17 km long ENE-WSW trending line ESE of Lago Ranco. The volcano erupted 3 times in the 20th century, forming the Mirador scoria cone and two maars, Riñinahue and Carrán. These historical eruptions were at the intersection of the Liquine-Ofqui fault zone with the ENE-WSW alignment of volcanic centers.

Carrizozo (Volcano)

The massive Carrizozo lava flow is one of Earth's longest known lava flows that were erupted in the past 10,000 years. The basalt flow is 50 m thick, 75 km long, 1-5 km wide and was mainly fed by lava tubes. -> See whole entry

Castillo de Guanapay (Place)

The Castillo de Santa Bárbara, also called Castillo de Guanapay, is situated on the Canarian island Lanzarote in the municipality and townTeguise. -> See whole entry

Cay (Volcano)

Volcán Cay is a probably still active stratovolcano in southern Chile, 15 km NE of Maca volcano and NW of the town of Puerto Aisén. Like Maca and Hudson volcanoes, Cay is one of the large composite central volcanoes in the South Andean Volcanic Zone. Cay volcano is basaltic and dacitic in composition. It contains an explosion crater open to the east, and about a half dozen explosion craters and pyroclastic cones along a fissure trending SW of the summit. Another 10 basaltic cinder cones are located along a second parallel fissure 5 km to the SE, which is part of the major regional Liquiñe-Ofqui fault zone. -> See whole entry

Cayambe (Volcano)

Nevado Cayambe is a massive volcanic complex in northern Ecuador, 60 km NE of the city of Quito and only 15 km E of the 20,000 inhabitants city of Cayambe. The equator passes through its southern flank. The andesitic-dacitic volcano is located on the isolated western edge of the Cordillera Real in the Ecuadorian Andes, east of the Inter-Andean Valley. The volcano is capped by extensive glaciers, which descend to 4200 m on the eastern Amazonian side. It contains 2 summit lava domes located about 1.5 km apart, the western of which is the highest. Several other lava domes are located on the upper flanks and have been the source of pyroclastic flows down the lower flanks of the volcano. La Virgen is a prominent young cinder cone on the lower eastern flank, which erupted thick andesitic lava flows that reached 10 km to the east. There is only one confirmed historic eruption, during 1785-86, but recent studies have shown that the volcano has produced frequent explosive eruptions during the past 4000 years. -> See whole entry

Cayutué-La Viguería (Volcano)

Cayutué-La Viguería volcano is a volcanic field in southern Chile, south of Lake Todos los Santos. The field contains about 20 young basaltic maars and cinder cones, aligned NNE-SSW on the Liquiñe-Ofqui fault zone, a major regional N-S feature. -> See whole entry

Ceboruco (Volcano)

Cereme (Volcano)

Cereme (or Ciremai) volcano close to the north coast of Java is a symmetric stratovolcano and among the most beautiful and largest of Java's active volcanoes. It contains a deep twin crater elongated in E-W direction. Cereme's historic eruptions were infrequent, and consited mainly in mild explosive activity and mud flows from the summit crater. -> See whole entry

Cerro Auquihuato (Volcano)

Cerro Auquihuato volcano is a young, 380 m high cinder cone in southern Perú, located about 30 km NE of Sara Sara volcano and east of Río Ocona. The location on a high plateau is very remote and far from road access and little is known about the volcano. Satellite images show a young lava flow with prominent channel structures. The flow extends 9 km south of the volcano.

Cerro Azul (Volcano)

Cerro Azul (Volcano)

Cerro Azul stratovolcano in Central Chile is located at the southern end of the Descabezado Grande-Cerro Azul group of volcanoes. Its steep summit cone contains a 500 m wide crater. Cerro Azul is the site of one of the largest explosive eruptions in the 20th centuries. It erupted from the Quizapu vent on April 10-11 1932, producing a Plinian eruption column of 27-30 km (ca. 95,000 ft) height. The eruption formed a 600-700 m wide 150-m-deep crater and blanketed the region with ash. Quizapu is one of Azul's major vents and located on the northern flank of Cerro Azul. It formed in 1846 during the first historical eruption at Cerro Azul, which was accompanied by voluminous dacitic lava flows that traveled both east into the Estero Barroso valley and west into the Río Blanquillo valley. Quizapu was also the site of the massive 1932 eruption. La Resoloma Craters are 3 basaltic-andesite cinder cones on the W flank. They erupted Los Hornitos are cinder cones on the lower SW flank. Note: there are 2 volcanoes with similar names: Volcan Azul in Nicaragua, and Cerro Azul in the Galapagos Islands.

Cerro Bayo (Volcano)

Cerro Bayo is a complex volcano on the northern Chile/Argentina border. The volcano contains a young cone exactly on the border with a 400 m wide crater which has erupted two 4 km long lava flows to the north and NW. The youngest known product of the volcano are 2 dacitic lava flows that traveled to the north and were erupted from the summit crater located on the Chilean side.

Cerro Bravo (Volcano)

Cerro Bravo volcano is located 145 km NW of Bogota, Colombia, north of Nevado del Ruiz volcano. It consists of dominantly dacitic lava-domes. In the past 4000 years, the volcano has had at least 7 violent (plinian) explosive eruptions, producing pumice layers and pyroclastic flows.

Cerro Cinotepeque (Volcano)

Cerro Cinotepeque volcano is a group of 4 young cinder cones on both sides of Río Lempa, about 40 km north of San Salvador city. Cerro Cinotepeque (also spelled Cinotepec) lies south of the river, 2 other cones, Cerro Santiago and Cerro Mosquito, immediately north of the river. A fourth cone is located along the Río Gualchayo about 10 km farther north. -> See whole entry

Cerro del Azufre (Volcano)

Cerro del Azufre ("sulphur peak") volcano is a large andesitic stratovolcano in northern Chile 20 km from the border with Bolivia. It is the largest and youngest volcanic center of a 50-km-long, NW-SE-trending chain of volcanoes south of Salar de Ascotán. The volcano has 2 summits, the northern peak forming the summit and the lower southern peak (5700 m) belonging to an earlier stratovolcano, which extends towards the extinct Cerro Aguilucho volcano. It is uncertain whether the volcano has erupted in the past 10,000 years. There are a number of fresh-looking lava domes and craters, but in this region erosion and weathering are so inefficient that such craters can look young, but are actually hundreds of thousands of years old. Note: there is a volcano with a similar name - "Cordon del Azufre" in northern Chile. -> See whole entry

Cerro del Leon (Volcano)

Cerro del Leon stratovolcano is located in northern Chile next to the massive Chao lava dome.

Cerro el Ciguatepe (Volcano)

Cerro el Ciguatepe volcano is located in the Nicaraguan interior highlands, east of the Nicaraguan depression and one of several Quarternary volcanoes in this area. It contains a well-reserved 1.5 km wide summit crater, which contains a blocky lava dome and a young lava flow that has traveled from a breach in the SW side of the crater to the base of the cone. -> See whole entry

Cerro el Condor (Volcano)

Cerro el Cóndor is a large stratovolcano located in NW Argentina. it is one of the few larger volcanoes which are completely inside Argentina. The volcano was built on top of a 2.5-km-wide caldera and contains several ash cones and craters which are aligned on a NNW-SSE trend. There are several lava flows extending up to 10 km east towards the base of Peinado volcano. There are many satellitic vents, including one on the east flank with a fresh-looking lava flow that traveled 8 km to the east. The young morphology and the pristine summit crater suggest a young, Holocene age for Cerro del Cóndor.

Cerro Negro (Volcano)

Cerro Negro, Central America's youngest volcano was born in April 1850 and is one of the region's most active volcanoes. It has been producing frequent strombolian eruptions, occasional lava fountains and lava flows, and powerful explosive eruptions every few decades. Cerro Negro lies in a sparsely populated area and its eruptions have not caused significant damage nearby, but ash fall from its sometimes strong explosions have damaged farmland and houses in the populated areas of the Nicaraguan depression. -> See whole entry

Cerro Negro de Mayasquer (Volcano)

Cerro Negro de Mayasquer is an andesitic to dacitic stratovolcano on the Colombia-Ecuador border. It contains a caldera open to the west. An historical eruption reported in 1936 is probably false and may have been from Reventador volcano. Solfataras are found on the shore of a small crater lake. -> See whole entry

Cerro Nicholson (Volcano)

Cerro Nicholson volcano is a small isolated andesitic scoria cone in Southern Peru. It is located on a plain WSW of Chachani volcano and WNW of El Misti volcano. The crater of the Cerro Nicholson cone has a youthful appearance and is full of fresh-looking volcanic bombs, suggesting a relatively young age. It is similar to the Andahua scoria cones farther to the north. -> See whole entry

Cerro Overo (Volcano)

Cerro Overo is an isolated basaltic maar in northern Chile, located on the lower NE flank of Chiliques volcano, west of the Salar de Aguas Calientes, and 20 km north of Lascar volcano. The fresh morphology suggests a possible Holocene age. It contains a 600-m-wide and 80-m-deep crater. Cerro Overo erupted the least silica-rich volcanic rocks (basalts) found in this part of the Central Andes.

Cerro Pantoja (Volcano)

Cerro Pantoja is an eroded dominantly basaltic volcano along the Chile-Argentina border. The only known activity within the past 10,000 years is a cinder cone on the Argentinian side. Cerro Pantoja lies SSW of Lake Constancia located immediately west of the Argentinian border. The volcano has a dramatic steep-sided summit pinnacle.

Cerro Prieto (Volcano)

Cerro Prieto volcano is a small dacitic lava dome in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field at the northern end of the Gulf of California, 33 km south of Mexicali at the Mexican border or 175 km SE of San Diego. -> See whole entry

Cerro Singuil (Volcano)

Cerro Singüil (also known as El Cerron) is a large scoria cone SE of Volcán Chingo in the interior valley of El Salvador near the Guatemalan border. The volcano has a well-preserved summit crater and belongs to a young volcanic field of cinder cones and explosion craters. -> See whole entry

Cerros de Tocopuri (Volcano)

Cerros de Tocorpuri is a stratovolcano in northern Chile on the border with Bolivia. It contains a 1.2 km wide summit crater and a lava dome, Cerro La Torta, located on its western side.

Chacana (Volcano)

Chacana is an active stratovolcano 30 km SE of Quito, Ecuador. The volcano is one of the largest rhyolitic centers of the northern Andes and contains a large 32 km long and 24 km wide eroded caldera. Historic activity consisted of lava flows in the 18th century. -> See whole entry

Chachimbiro (Volcano)

Chachimbiro volcano is a large volcanic complex 25 km NW of the city of Ibarra in northern Ecuador. There are no historic eruptions. The most recent activity took place from the Pitzantzi lava dome and produced a wide-spread ash deposit that extends NW. -> See whole entry

Chaîne des Puys (Volcano)

The Chaîne des Puys in the Massif Central of southern France is one of Europe's youngest volcanic fields. It consists of numerous cinder cones and maars roughly arranged on a N-S trending line. The last activity occurred only about 6000 years ago, which is why the volcanoes should be considered still active although there are no signs at present of any new activity to be expected in any near future. -> See whole entry

Chaiten (Volcano)

Changbaishan Synonym of: Baitoushan (Volcano)

Chao (Volcano)

The Chao lava dome in northern Chile near Calama town is one of the largest known lava domes in the world. It measures 14.5 km in length and 350-400 m in height.

Chichinautzin (Volcano)

Chikurachki (Volcano)

Chikurachki stratovolcano forms highest peak on Paramushir Island in the northern Kurile island arc just south of Kamchatka Peninsula. It is one of the region's most active volcanoes. The volcano itself is a relatively small cone, compared to other volcanoes of the Kurile Islands, but it is built on top of the high-lying remnants of an older and now extinct predecessor volcano. The dominantlyc basaltic one has steep slopes with little erosion and a shallow summit crater of approximately 450 m in diameter. The upper part of Chikurachki's cone is red, caused by oxidized basaltic-to-andesitic scoria deposits. Eruptions of Chikurachki volcano: There are 2 principal types of eruptions from Chikurachki: 1) frequent strombolian (mildly explosive) eruptions, such as in 1958, 1961, 1964, 1973, 2002, 2003, and 2) (sub-)plinian (extremely violent and dangerous) explosive eruptions such as in 1853 and 1986. The strombolian-type eruptions usually last between several days to few weeks, and produce ejections of incandescent lava reaching 100-500 m height above the crater, but can occasionally produce ash plumes of up to 3 km height. Many eruptions from Chikurachki are accompanied by lava flows. Some have reached the sea and form capes on the NW coast, and there are young lava flows on the upper eastern flank. Basaltic plinian eruptions are a globally rare phenomenon, but common at Chikurachki volcano, and it is estimated that they have occurred every 100–200 years. Such eruptions - similar to the Icelandic Grimsvötn's eruption in June 2011 - are capable of producing tall ash plumes reaching 10-20 km and pose a significant hazard to aviation in an area densely populated by flight routes from N-America to Asia. -> See whole entry

Chiliques (Volcano)

Volcán Chiliques is a stratovolcano in northern Chile immediately south of Laguna Lejía. The volcano consists of a symmetrical cone rising 1000 m from the surrounding terrain and contains a 500 m wide crater. Several young lava flows are seen on its flanks and some might be younger than 10,000 years. The largest flow extends 5 km to the NW, but older flows have reached 10 km distance on the north flank towards Laguna Lejía. In April 2002, first signs of a possible reawakening of the volcano were detected as new hot spots inside the crater.

Chimborazo (Volcano)

Chimborazo volcano is Ecuador's highest active volcano and the highest in the Northern Andean Volcanic Zone. The massive, ice-capped stratovolcano lies at the southwest end of the main Ecuadorian volcanic arc, the so-called "Avenida de los Volcanes" ("Avenue of Volcanoes") and is located ca. 150 km SSW of Quito and 28 km NW of the town of Riobamba. Chimborazo had been thought to be extinct, but new studies have shown that it still is an active volcano. Although there are no historical eruptions, Chimborazo erupted at least 7 times during the past 10,000 years. These eruptions produced pyroclastic surges that reached down to 3800 m elevation. The average time interval between single eruptions is about 1000 years and the last eruption occurred about 1400 years ago, which means that statistically, it is due for another one. Due to its great height and its geologic history of explosive eruptions, and closeness to populated areas in Ambato and Riobamba basins, it should be considered a dangerous volcano. -> See whole entry

Chinameca (Volcano)

Chinameca volcano (also known as El Pacayal) is a small stratovolcano next to the larger San Miguel volcano in eastern El Salvador. It is connected to San Miguel across a low saddle to the SE. Chinameca is truncated by a 2-km-wide, steep-sided caldera, Laguna Seca el Pacayal. Coffee plantations cover most of the flanks of the volcano. -> See whole entry

Chirinkotan (Volcano)

Chirinkotan volcano is a large, mostly submerged stratovolcano forming a small largely unvegetated and 3 km wide island in the Kuril Island chain. It is located at the far end of an E-W-trending volcanic chain that extends nearly 50 km west of the central part of the main Kuril Islands arc. The volcano is one of the Kurile's most active. Historical eruptions included lava flows on the SE flank during an eruption in the 1880s and were observed by the English fur trader Captain Snow. -> See whole entry

Chirip (Volcano)

Chirip volcano is a twin volcano forming the Chirip peninsula which streches NW into the Okhotsk Sea from central Iturup Island, Kurile Island, 230 km north of Hokkaido, Japan. The 2 stratovolcanoes are Chirip volcano in the N and Bogdan Khmelnitskii to the S. They overly an older volcanic edifice. The lavas erupted from both volcanoes are dominantly basaltic, which is unusual for subduction zone volcanoes. Only 2 historic eruptions are known. The last eruption in 1860 occurred from a vent SE of the summit of Bogdan Khmelnitskii volcano. -> See whole entry

Chirpoi (Volcano)

Chirpoi volcano forms a small island in the central Kurile Islands, Russia. It has a 8-9 km wide partially submerged caldera with several volcanic centers inside the caldera, including active Snow and Cerny volcanoes. The southern caldera rim emerges again on nearby Brat Chirpoey Island 2.5 km SE of Chirpoi. -> See whole entry

Chokai (Volcano)

Chokai volcano (鳥海山 Chōkai-san) is the largest volcano of NE Honshu. It is a massive stratovolcano with a broad conical profile which is why it is called locally Akita-Fuji or Dewa-Fuji. Its height measures from the WNW elongated 15x20 km base about 2000 m. The volcano is located about 60 km west behind the main volcanic front of the Honshu arc and towers above the Japan Sea. Chokai consists of 2 overlapping volcanoes, the western and older volcano Nishi-Chokai and the younger eastern volcano Higashi-Chokai, forming the 2 distinct peaks. Historic records of eruptions, mostly phreatic explosions, go back to the 6th century AD. -> See whole entry

Cinnamon Butte (Volcano)

Cinnamon Butte is one of a group of 3 young cinder cones long a WNW-ESE line immediately west of the Cascade crest and NE of Diamond Lake in Oregon, USA. The other two cones are Thirsty Point and Kelsay Point. -> See whole entry

Clear Lake (Volcano)

Clear Lake volcanic field lies in the northern Coast Ranges, California, ca. 135 km north of San Francisco. The volcanic field consists of lava dome complexes, cinder cones, and maars of basaltic-to-rhyolitic composition. Mount Konocti, a dacitic lava dome on the south shore of Clear Lake, is the largest volcanic feature. The area has intense gethermal activity, caused by a large, still hot silicic magma chamber about 14 km wide and 7 km beneath the surface. It provides the heat source for the Geysers, the world's largest producing geothermal field on the SW side of the volcanic field. Its geothermal power plants can generate approximately 2000 megawatts, enough to power two cities the size of San Francisco. The latest volcanic activity happened about 10,000 years ago and formed maars and cinder cones along the shores of Clear Lake, the larges natural freshwater lake in California. Volcanism around Clear Lake is related to the complex San Andreas transform fault system. -> See whole entry

Cleveland (Volcano)

The beautifully symmetrical Mount Cleveland stratovolcano forms the western half of the uninhabited Chuginadak Island in the eastern Aleutians, connected to the eastern half of the island by a narrow isthmus. It is one of the regions most active volcanoes, but at present has no seismic network. Monitoring of its activity is largely based on satellite observation. -> See whole entry

Coatepeque (Volcano)

Coatepeque volcano is a large 7 x 10 km wide caldera 50 km west of San Salvador city. The caldera is elongated in SE-NW direction, with walls rising up to 800 m above the floor in its southwestern part. An up to 120 m deep and 5 km diameter lake occupies the eastern part of the caldera. Hot springs occur near the lake shores, but there are no certain historical eruptions from Coatepeque. -> See whole entry

Cochiquito (Volcano)

Cochiquito is part of a small group of young volcanoes (Cochiquito, Sillanegra and Ranquil del Sur ) north of the town of Buta Ranquil, Argentina, near where the Río Grande and Río Barrancas join to form the Río Colorado. -> See whole entry

Cofre de Perote (Volcano)

Colachi (Volcano)

Colachi volcano is a stratovolcano in northern Chile. Th youngest lava flows were erupted probably less than 10,000 years ago and cover an area of 7 sq km area on the saddle between Colachi and the neighboring volcano Acamarachi.

Coleman Seamount (Volcano)

Coleman Seamount volcano is a submarine volcano in the western Solomon Islands discovered in 1985 by the Hawaiian "Moana Wave" research vessel during a November 1985 to January 1986 cruise. -> See whole entry

Colima (Volcano)

Comondu-La Purisima (Volcano)

Comondú-La Purísima volcano is a volcanic field of about 9000 sq km in southern Baja California, west of the Sierra de la Giganta. Volcanic activity of La Purısima dates back about 10 million years ago, but might have continued into the Holocene (i.e. less than 10,000 years ago), as some of the cinder cones and blocky lava flows, in the area between Comondú and the La Purísima river, have preserved a very fresh morphology. -> See whole entry

Concepción (Volcano)

Concepción volcano is a steep symmetrical stratovolcano with a perfect shape and one of the most active volcanoes of Nicaragua. During the past 100 years, it has been in a near-constant state of small to medium ash explosions at irregular intervals. Together with its neighbor Madera volcano Concepción forms the NW half of the dumbbell-shaped island of Ometepe in Lake Nicaragua. Both volcanoes are connected by a narrow isthmus. Frequent explosive eruptions during the past decades have increased the height of its summit significantly (more than 100 m) and outdated the existing topographic maps. Because of the frequent ash eruptions, the upper half of the summit cone lacks vegetation. The basaltic-to-dacitic Concepción volcano contains a steep-walled 250 m summit crater with a higher western rim. Flank vents are aligned on N-S-trending fractures and contain chains of spatter cones, cinder cones, lava domes, and maars on the NW, NE, SE, and southern sides. Some of these vents are found down to Lake Nicaragua. -> See whole entry

Conchagua (Volcano)

Conchagua volcano (also known as Cochague) is an eroded stratovolcano on the western side of the Gulf of Fonseca in at the southeastern tip of El Salvador. The main summit of Conchagua is Cerro del Ocote, but the secondary summit Cerro de La Bandera to the ENE of the elongated volcanic edifice seems to be younger. It is uncertain whether the volcano should be considered still active, but it has certainly not erupted for a long time. There is fumarolic activity on some spots of both peaks. -> See whole entry

Conchaguita (Volcano)

Conchagüita volcano at the SE tip of El Salvador forms a small 4-km-wide island in the Gulf of Fonseca separated from Conchagua volcano across a narrow strait. The volcano is a sharp-topped cone with a 100-m-wide summit crater at the southern end and contains a young lava delta that forms a peninsula on the island's eastern side. A crescent-shaped crater open to the west is located at the northern end of the island. The only known historic activity from Conchagüita volcano were small ash emissions in 1892.

Cook volcano (Volcano)

Cook volcano is an alleged active submarine volcano in the Western Solomons, whose existence is questionable and not accepted by Smithsonian's Global Volcanism database, although it is listed as one of the 4 active volcanoes (Savo, Kavachi, Cook and Tinakula) of the Solomon Islands in the 1957 "Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes of the World" by Fischer. These are Savo, Kavachi, Cook and Tinakula. . Possible eruptions of the Cook volcano occurred in 1964 and 1991, and were reported by Australian navy. -> See whole entry

Copahue (Volcano)

Copahue volcano is an active stratovolcano in central Chile at the border with Argentina. The volcano has a 6.5 x 8.5 km wide caldera with several craters aligned on a 2 km ENE-WSW trending zone. The eastern summit crater has an acid 300 m wide crater lake known as El Agrio or Del Agrio which has intense hydrothermal activity. Infrequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions occurred in historic time. Eruptions in the last century have ejected pyroclastic rocks and chilled liquid sulfur fragments. The last one was in 2000. -> See whole entry

Copiapo (Volcano)

Copiapo volcano is an andesitic to dacitic stratovolcano in the Atacama province of northern Chile, close to Nevado Tres Cruces National Park and Laguna del Negro Francisco. Most of the volcano's edifice is several hundreds of thousands to millions years old, and Copiapo might be extinct although there is still solfataric activity. The volcano contains 8 andesitic cinder cones located primarily on the SE flank. The most recent cone is Volcán San Román 7 km north of Copiapó.

copra ()

Copra is the dried meat, or kernel, of the coconut. -> See whole entry

Corcovado (Volcano)

Corcovado volcano is an isolated and little studied stratovolcano in southern Chile. Its only known historic activity was in 1834 and/or 1835. C. Darwin described seing it in activity in 1834 and an explosive eruption was reported to have occurred in November 1835 by a resident from Chiloe, 60 km west of the volcano. Corcovado is ice-covered and basaltic to basaltic-andesite in composition. It has several young (Holocene) cinder cones on its flanks, which are likely the source of its recent eruptions.

Cordon de Puntas Negras (Volcano)

Cordón de Puntas Negras is a stratovolcano in northern Chile 46 km SE of Lascar volcano. The volcano has a number of fresh-looking cones and craters such as Cerros Cenizas, Aguas Calientes, Laguna Escondida, and Chinchilla with well-preserved summit craters and short lava flows. In addition, there is a distinct maar and a large, 13 sq km silicic lava flow and dome complex. It is thought that some of these vents are less than 10,000 years old, or even historical in age. The youngest of the complex is a crater SE of Cerro Laguna Escondidax. -> See whole entry

Cordón del Azufre (Volcano)

Cordón del Azufre is a small volcanic complex on the Argentina/Chile border. The volcano consists of a cluster of lava flows from a row of vents on the NW (Argentinian) side, and a 5 km long chain of vents along the border with Chile. Note: there is a volcano with a similar name Cerro del Azufre in Northern Chile. -> See whole entry

Coronado (Volcano)

Coronado volcano is a small stratovolcano in the Gulf of California. It forms a 2 km wide peninsula at the northern tip of Coronado Island, 3 km off the eastern coast of Baja California in the Canal de los Ballenas. The roughly 440-m-high volcano contains a 300 x 160 m wide crater. Little is known about Volcán Coronado and it is unknown when it last erupted. Fumarolic activity was reported in September 1539.

Coropuna (Volcano)

Nevado Coropuna volcano in southern Peru is the largest and highest active volcano in Peru. It rises majestically 4500 m from the surrounding terrain and forms an 10x20 km E-W elongated complex. The massive ice-covered complex has at least 6 summit cones. The flanks of the volcano are characterized by deep canyons. There have been no recorded eruptions and the age of the last eruption is unknown, but there is solfataric activity suggesting that the volcano might still be active.

Corvo (Volcano)

The small 3.5 x 6 km island of Corvo is located at the NW end of the Azores archipelago. -> See whole entry

Cosigüina (Volcano)

Cosigüina (or Cosegüina) volcano in western Nicaragua forms a large peninsula into the Gulf of Fonseca. The last eruption of the volcano was in 1959, but periods of unrest have occurred in recent years and in 1835, it produced the largest known historic eruption in Nicaragua. The basaltic to andesitic volcano has a concentric structure consisting of the remnants of an large older cone, which collapsed more than 10,000 years ago and left a crescent-shaped somma rim on the outside. In the old caldera, a young cone has been built and is itself truncated by an elliptical 2.4 x 2 km wide and 500 m deep caldera. The young caldera crater contains a beautiful lake. Most deposits inside the caldera are from lava flows, while ash and pumice layers predominate the outer flanks.

Coso (Volcano)

The Coso volcanic field is located east of the Sierra Nevada Range at the western edge of the Basin and Range province, California. It consists of 38 old rhyolitic lava domes and basaltic cinder cones covering a 400 sq km area. volcano is located 200 km north of Los Angeles, California. Eruptions in this area over the past 4 million years produced 35 km3 of lava, the youngest eruptions are probably from the basaltic Volcano Peak cinder cone and occurred more than 33,000 years ago. Coso Geothermal System There is geothermal activity in an ENE trending zone between Sugarloaf Mountain and the Coso Hot Springs. The Coso Hot Springs have fumaroles and intermittently active geysers. Fumaroles at Devils Kitchen and the adjacent Nicol area are located in an explosion crater surrounding a rhyolite lava dome. -> See whole entry

Cotopaxi (Volcano)

Cotopaxi is one of South America's most famous volcanoes and one of its most active ones. With its 5911 m it also ranks among the world's highest active volcanoes (26th highest). The majestic, snow covered symmetrical stratovolcano is located on the Eastern Cordillera of the Ecuadorian Andes, 60 km south of Quito and 35 km northeast of Latacunga. Cotopaxi's steep cone has nested summit craters, the outer of which measures 550 x 800 m in diameter. Cotopaxi erupted more than 50 times since 1738. The most violent historical eruptions of Cotopaxi volcano were in 1744, 1768, 1877, and 1904. its eruptions often produced pyroclastic flows and destructive mud flows (lahars). Some lahars have travelled more than 100 km and reached the Pacific to the west and the Amazon Basin to the east. At the moment, it has been dormant for over 70 years, which is an unusual long interval in its recent history. -> See whole entry

crater (Volcanology)

A depression often on the top or the flanks of a volcano usually created by explosions of lava from the vent.

Crater Basalt (Volcano)

Crater Basalt is a volcanic field of 9 cinder cones in the northern Patagonia region of southern Argentina 130 km SE of San Carlos de Bariloche. The volcanic field covers an area of 700 sq km, and consists of cinder and spatter cones with many overlapping blocky basalt lava flows. -> See whole entry

Crater Lake (Volcano)

Crater Lake in the southern Cascade Range of Oregon, USA, is one of the most beautiful calderas in the world. It formed by the collapse of a massive stratovolcano known as Mount Mazama about 6850 years ago. The caldera measures 8x10 km in diameter and is filled with a lake of up to 600 m depth. A small island, Wizzard Island, is a cinder cone that grew after the formation of the caldera. The caldera is part of Crater Lake National Park. -> See whole entry

Crater Mountain (Volcano)

Crater Mountain volcano is a curved volcanic chain of 3000 m and higher peaks located in the highlands of New Guinea. The volcanoes are deeply eroded, but there are young flows covering the steep-sided valleys to the north and east, which might be of Holocene age. The easternmost Agotu Valley contains several small craters, cinder cones, and maars. Crater Mountain is part of the 2700 km2 Crater Mountain Wildlife Management Area, known for its spectacular scenery and traditional villages.

Craters of the Moon (Volcano)

The Craters of the Moon are located at the NW end of the largest lava field of the Snake River Plain in Idaho, USA. The volcanic field contains over 60 lava flows, 25 cinder cones up to 250-m high, and 8 eruptive fissure systems, and covers an area of 1600 km2. The Craters of the Moon formed in 8 eruptive periods each lasting several hundred years, and separated by quiescence intervals of up to 3000 years. The eruptions began about 15,000 years ago, and ended with the most recent (so far) eruptions only 2100 years ago. In contrast to the Craters of the Moon, most other lava fields in the Snake River Plain formed during single, short eruptions. On average, lava output rate was 1.5 cubic km/1000 years for the period 15,000 to 7,000 years ago and increased to 2.8 cubic km /1000 years for the interval from 7,000 to 2,000 years ago. -> See whole entry

Crow Lagoon (Volcano)

Crow Lagoon is a little-known volcanic center located north of Prince Rupert, British Columbia, Canada. There are thick layers of basaltic scoria from eruptions less than 10,000 years old. Crow Lagoon is one of the top 10 volcanoes in Canada with recent seismic activity. The others include: Castle Rock, Mount Edziza volcanic complex, Mount Cayley, Hoodoo Mountain, The Volcano, Mount Silverthrone, Mount Meager, Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and Mount Garibaldi.

crust (Geology)

The outermost layer of the Earth, ranging from about 5 to 65 km in thickness worldwide, composed of plutonic, metamorphic, sedimentary and volcanic rocks. -> See whole entry

crystal (Geology)

In chemistry, mineralogy, and materials science, a crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. -> See whole entry

Cu-Lao Re (Volcano)

Cu-Lao Re volcano is a group of 4 basaltic sub-aerial and 9 submarine volcanic cones 150 km off the coast of central Vietnam. 3 of the subaerial cones form Cù-Lao Ré Island, and the fourth forms Cù-Lao Bo Bai Island.

Cuernos de Negros (Volcano)

Cuernos de Negros (also known as Magaso) is a large stratovolcano complex located in SE Negros Island, Philippines, near the city of Dumaguete. It is unknown when it has erupted after since the last radiocarbon-dated activity about 14,000 years ago. At present, it still has active fumaroles at the highest crater of Magaso, sulphuric springs at the ESE flanks and hot springs on the NE flank. An increase in fumarolic activity was observed after (and probably triggered by) a major tectonic earthquake in 1902. The Palinpinon geothermal field is located south of the Okoy River on the north side of the volcano. -> See whole entry

Cuernos del Diablo (Volcano)

Cuernos del Diablo volcano is a partially glacially eroded basaltic stratovolcano in southern Chile. The volcano has been frequently active in the Holocene (within the past 11,700 years) and produced flank cones and erupted basaltic lava flows. Most eruptions took place from vents on the SW flank and from the summit to the NW base of the volcano. There are no historically recorded eruptions, but it is possible that the volcano has been active in the past centuries. Fumaroles were observed on a flank cone in 1931.

Cuicocha (Volcano)

Cuicocha volcano is a beautiful caldera in northern Ecuador 100 km north of Quito. The volcano has a 3 km wide lake filled caldera and sits at the feet of the sharp-peaked (extinct) Cotacachi stratovolcano. There are gas emissions from several locations in the caldera lake at present indicating the volcano is still active. -> See whole entry

Cumbal (Volcano)

Cumbal volcano is an active glacier-capped stratovolcano in SW Colombia, located 25 km SW of Azufral volcano and 5.5 km NE of the town of Cumbal - Pueblo. Cumbal is the southernmost active volcano of Colombia that has erupted in historic times. A young lava dome occupies the 250-m-wide summit crater, and eruptions from the upper east flank produced a 6-km-long lava field. Thermal springs occur on the SE flanks. -> See whole entry

Dacht-i-Navar (Volcano)

Dacht-i-Navar volcano is a group of 15 lava domes in west-central Afghanistan SW of Kabul. Their age is unknown, but it is speculated that they have erupted less than 10,000 years ago and should be considered potentially active. The lava domes are trachyandesitic in composition and located along the southern margin of Dacht-i-Navar.

dacite (Volcanology)

Dacite is an igneous, volcanic rock with a high iron content found at many lava-domes. -> See whole entry

Daikoku (Volcano)

Daikoku is a sumbarine volcano with a conical summit in the Japanese Volcano Islands chain. It sits on an elongated E-W-trending ridge SE of Eifuku submarine volcano and rises to within 323 m of the sea surface. It has a crater with a black pool of liquid sulfur discovered in 2006. Daikoku submarine volcano is one of about a dozen submarine volcanoes displaying hydrothermal activity in the southern part of the Izu-Marianas chain. -> See whole entry

Daisetsu (Volcano)

Daisetsu (also spelled Taisetsu) volcano is a group of 8 stratovolcanoes, lava domes and a small 2 km wide caldera in the Daisetsu-zan National Park (the roof of Hokkaido) in central Hokkaido. Asahi (旭岳 Asahi-dake) volcano is the highest peak of the volcanic complex and the highest mountain in Hokkaido. No historical eruptions are known from Daisetsu, although the last eruption must have taken place in or after 1739 AD. At present, there are fumaroles and sulfur was mined at Asahi-dake. Daisetsu-zan National Park is the largest national park of Japan covering 230,000 ha. The park stretches from Mt. Torashiumu to the Tokachi Mountains. It is known for its hot springs, which can be found at Sounkyou, Yukomanbetsu, Tenninkyou, Nukabira, Shirogane, Shikaribetsu and Tomuraushi. -> See whole entry

Dakataua (Volcano)

Dakataua volcano is a large caldera on the northern end of Willaumez Peninsula, New Britain. The elliptical caldera, 13.5 km E-W and 10.5 km N-S, is one of New Britain's most impressive volcanoes. The caldera contains the 12 km wide horseshoe-shaped Lake Dakataua which is at only 50 m above sea level. The Dakataua caldera formed during probably several Plinian eruptions. The last one occurred about 1150 years ago, and was followed by at least 5 subplinian to vulcanian explosions. The highest point of the volcanic complex is Mt Makalia (350m), a small andesitic stratovolcano (or large cinder cone) that formed after the caldera. Together with other post-caldera cones and explosion craters aligned on a N-S line, they form a large peninsula of the lake. The last activity from the volcano was from Makalia in the lat 19th century. At present, there is fumarolic activity occurs at the summit of Makalia and warm springs are found in the lake at the base of the mountain. -> See whole entry

Dalaffilla (Volcano)

Stratovolcano in the Erta Ale range (Ethiopia) which started a major effusive eruption on Nov 4, 2008 - one of the largest effusive eruptions in Africa during historic times. -> See whole entry

Dallol (Volcano)

The Dallol volcano, or rather the Dallol hydrothermal field is located in a remote part of the northern Danakil Depression in NE Ethiopia. It is the lowest known sub-aerial volcanic area in the world. Dallol is one of the world's most spectacular landscape: a vast area of uplifted thick salt deposits affected by intense fumarolic activity, probably caused by an active volcanic system beneath several kilometers of evaporation salt deposits. Dallol is said to be the hottest place on the planet, with average annual temperatures well above 30 deg C. The area commonly referred to Dallol volcano contains the approx. 1.5 x 3 km wide Dallol "mountain" (rising about 50 m above the great salt lake) near the border with Eritrea, and nearby warm springs including the Yellow Lake, the Black Mountain with the Blue Lake, said to be an explosion crater from a hydrothermal eruption in 1926. Dallol is famous for its hot brine, and multicolored white, pink, red, yellow, green, gray and black salt deposits, hot springs and miniature geysers. These bizarre structures form in a complex interaction of solution and recrystallization processes driven by hydrothermal waters and rapid evaporation. -> See whole entry

Damavand (Volcano)

Damavand volcano is a majestic stratovolcano located 70 km NE of Tehran and 70 km south of the Caspian Sea. Mt Damavand is the highest peak in the Middle East and the second highest volcano in Asia (after Kunlun volcano in Tibet). Damavand last erupted about 7,300 years ago. There are no historical eruptions, but fumaroles at the summit crater suggest that the volcano is still active. -> See whole entry

Danau (Volcano)

The Danau caldera at the western end of Java Island belongs to the Gunung Karang volcano. It was formed in Pleistocene (+- 2,5 mil. years ago). 10000 years ago two andesitic to basaltic volcanoes erupted and built up a stratovolcano until 1778m altitude (Karang volcano). Some active hydrothermal systems with hot springs are the today´s last sign of activity. -> See whole entry

Dar-Alages (Volcano)

A group of six cinder and lava cones of Pleistocene-to-Holocene age is located in southern Armenia on the western slopes of the Vardeniss volcanic ridge, south of Lake Sevan. -> See whole entry

Datong (Volcano)

The Datong volcanoes (Datong-Fengzen volcanic field) are located 3 km northeast of Datong City at Xigelaoshan in North China west of Beijing. The volcanic field contains approx. 80 cinder cones and small lava domes. The most notable cones are Heishan (1,422 meters above sea level), Jinshan (1,368 meters above sea level), Langwoshan (1,028 meters above sea level) and Gelaoshan (1,276 meters above sea level). The well-preserved Jinshan cone is a major tourist attraction of the area. There are unconfirmed records of historic eruptions around 450 AD. -> See whole entry

debris avalanche (Volcanology)

A sudden collapse of volcanic material from an unstable side of a volcano. Debris avalanches are a particularly violent type of pyroclastic flows (in its broader meaning).

Deception Island (Volcano)

Deception Island is a 14 km wide, ring-shaped volcanic island at the south-western end of the South Shetland Islands, NE of Graham Land Peninsul. It is one of the most well-known active volcanoes of the Antarctic region. Deception Island is a sea-filled caldera with a diameter of 7 km with a narrow entry (Neptunes Bellows) on the SE side. The island forms a natural harbour and was a popular base for whaling ships in the 19th century. There were huts and shelters and, later, scientific observatory stations, which were damaged during the last eruptions in 1967 and 1969. -> See whole entry

Demon (Volcano)

Demon is a stratovolcano on the extreme northern tip of Iturup Island, Kuriles. The volcano has had no recent eruptions, but might still be active. It was built during the past 10,000 years inside a glacial valley 3 km east of the older eroded Kamui volcano. Damon's summit has a 1.5-km-wide crater open to the east.

Dempo (Volcano)

Derbi-Tayga (Volcano)

Derbi-Tayga is a 2605-m-high glacially eroded shield volcano in the Azas Plateau in southeastern Russia near Lak Baikal.

Descabezado Grande (Volcano)

Descabezado Grande ("the big decapitated") volcano in central Chile is an active stratovolocano with a 1.4 km wide ice-filled summit crater, a basal diameter of 11 km and a volume of 30 cubic km. The only historical eruption was in 1932, when a lateral crater formed on the upper NNE, shortly after the end of the major 1932 eruption from nearby Quizapu volcano on the north flank of Cerro Azul. At the moment the volcano is dormant, but the NE corner of the caldera has active fumaroles. -> See whole entry

Devils Garden (Volcano)

Devils Garden volcanic field in central Oregon, east of the Cascade Range, is the NW-most of a group of 3 young basaltic lava fields SE of Newberry volcano. It covers 117 sq km and consists of fissure vents and lava flows. -> See whole entry

Devis Lake (Volcano)

Davis Lake area in Oregon, USA, is a volcanic field with 3 cinder cones and lava flows of three cinder cones and associated lava flows. -> See whole entry

Dgida Basin (Volcano)

Dgida volcano (Dgida Basin, Dgida-Tunkin volcanic field) is a group of cinder cones in southeastern Russia 23 km from the border with Mongolia and 125 km SW of Lake Baikal. It belongs to the Tunkin Depression volcanic field and is considered to be related to an intraplate hot spot.

Diamond Craters (Volcano)

Diamond Craters is a 60 sq km volcanic field in SE Oregon, 11 km east of highway 205 and 64 km (40 miles) southeast of the town of Burns. It consists of cinder cones, maars (explosion craters) and lava flows. Diamond Craters were named after the Diamond Ranch, established in the area by the pioneer Mace McCoy and his partner Albert Hugh Robie. The ranch used a diamond-shaped brand, hence the name. -> See whole entry

Didicas (Volcano)

Didicas volcano is a small volcanic island 22 km NE of Camiguin Island, 60 km off the northern coast of Luzon, Philippines. Until 1952, it was a submarine volcano that had previously formed temporary islands during eruptions. In the eruption of 1952 the submarine volcano formed a new lava dome that surfaced above sea level and has become now a permanent new island. -> See whole entry

Dieng (Volcano)

The Dieng volcanic complex forms a 6x14km large highland plateau in Central Java west of Yogyakarta. It consists of overlapping volcanoes and a large caldera, lava domes, cones, and explosion craters many of which are filled by lakes. It is known for its varied colorful volcanic scenery and hydrothermal activity, and a sacred area to the Javanese people; some of the oldest Hindu temples of Java are found here, dating back to the 8th century AD. -> See whole entry

diorite (Volcanology)

Diorite is an intrusive igneous rock of intermediate silica content (53-63%). It is the equivalent of its extrusive (volcanic) counterpart andesite. -> See whole entry

Dobu (Dawson Strait Group) (Volcano)

Dobu is one of 3 volcanic centres of the Dawson Strait Group. It forms the small Dobu Island SE of Fergusson Island. Dobu volcano consists of a composite cone with a summit crater and a small satellite cone. It, too, has produced obsidian lava flows. -> See whole entry

Doma Peaks (Volcano)

Doma Peaks is an andesitic stratovolcano located at the western end of a volcanic chain in the highlands of New Guinea. The volcano has 2 westward facing escarpments which are probably the result of landslides. It has a main cater breached towards the west by the Arua River, flank vents southwest of the summit, and a lava field on the northeastern flank. The age of the last eruption is unknown. At present, there is geothermal activity at the headwaters of the Arua and Tebi Rivers.

Domuyo (Volcano)

Volcán Domuyo is a stratovolcano in NW Argentinia and perhaps still an active one. It has a 15-km wide caldera, within which at least 14 dacitic lava domes and other eruptive centers were constructed. Other 5 vents are outside the caldera, the largest being the Volcán Chanque-Mallín volcano on the ESE flank. Chanque-Mallín itself is truncated by a 4-km-wide caldera and contains a new lava dome.

Doña Juana (Volcano)

Doña Juana is a forested stratovolcano 56 km NE of Galeras volcano. The volcano has 2 calderas, the younger of which contains the active summit cone. The only historic eruption started in 1897 and lasted almost 10 years, during which the youngest of several summit lava dome was built. Large pyroclastic flows were produced during this eruption. -> See whole entry

Doni Wijanyanto ()

Close friend of Tom, Indonesian volcanologist Doni Wijanyanto, works for the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia and guides groups for VolcanoDiscovery. -> See whole entry

Dotsero (Volcano)

The small Dotsero maar in NW Colorado, 2 km NE of the small town Dotsero, near the junction of the Colorado and Eagle Rivers west of the Gore Range, is the only volcano in Colorado that has had activity in the past 10,000 years. It erupted ca. 4000 years ago, producing an explosion crater (maar), lahars, and a 3 km long lava flow. The crater of Dotsero is 700 m in diameter and 400 m deep with a flat floor covered by debris. It exposes a lithic-rich pyroclastic deposit, a strombolian scoria-fall deposit, lahars deposits, and a lava flow. -> See whole entry

Doyo (Volcano)

Doyo Seamount is the southernmost of the 7 Shichiyo Seamounts, named for the 7 days of the week. Doyo ("Saturday") is a basaltic-andesite submarine caldera that rises 2340 m from the sea floor to within 860 m of the sea surface. It has a large horseshoe-shaped 3 x 10 km wide summit caldera. Major hydrothermal activity was observed in July 1990, and the volcano was reclassified as active by the Japan Meteorological Agency.

Dubbi (Volcano)

Dubbi volcano in Eritrea is a large volcanic massif rising 1625 m above the the western shore of the Red Sea. It is located in the Afar triangle south of the crystalline basement rocks in the Danakil Alps east of the Danakil depression and east of the Erta Ale range. The two most-recent eruptive centers are fissure systems that extend NW-SE and NNE-SSW. The former produced lava flows that reached the Red Sea in 1400 AD. The second created 19 small craters at the summit in 1861. Ash fell more than 300 km from the volcano. Two villages were destroyed and more than 100 persons were killed during Africa's largest eruption in historical time. Lava flows from the 1861 eruption traveled as far as 22 km and reached the coast. An eruption on 12 June 2011 from neighboring Nabro was originally believed to be from Dubbi. -> See whole entry

Dukono volcano (Volcano)

Durango (Volcano)

Durango volcano is a volcanic field in north-central Mexico north of the city of Durango, located at the NW end of the Meseta Central and the eastern edge of the Sierra Madre Occidental. The volcanic field covers 2100 sq km and contains about 100 maars, cinder cones and lava flows. Young activity occurred from the La Breña cone only a few thousand years ago. -> See whole entry

E-san (Volcano)

E-san (恵山(えさん) in Japanese) is the southernmost active volcano on Hokkaido. It is a small andesitic stratovolcano located in the southeast of the Kameda-hanto Peninsula extending into the Pacific Ocean from the south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait from Honshu. It has a lava dome forming its summit and another lava dome to the NW. Both have been active within the past 10,000 years, the summit lava dome forming about 9000 years ago. The only known historic eruptions were a small phreatic eruption in 1846 which produced a lahar with many fatalities, and a small explosion in 1874. E-san has many active fumaroles in a thermal area on the upper NW flank. Fumaroles are located on the upper NW flank. At the foot of Mt. E-san is the Esan-onsen Hot Spring, a popular attraction since the latter half of the 19th century, it is renowned for its distinctive wine-red colored water. -> See whole entry

Eagle Lake (Volcano)

Eagle lake is a volcanic field at the junction of the Sierra Nevada, Cascades, and Basin Range in California, USA. It contains 15 small cinder cones, fissures and lava flows.

Ebeko (Volcano)

Ebeko is one of the most active volcanoes in the Kurile Islands, located in northern Paramushir Island south of Kamchatka. Ebeko volcano has a flat top with 3 summit craters aligned SSW-NNE. The eastern part of the southern crater contains a large boiling spring. The middle crater has a hot lake with solfataras along its shore. The lower northern crater has a small, cold lake and is separated from the middle crater by a narrow ridge. Historical activity has been recorded since the late 18th century and consisted in small to moderate explosive eruptions from the summit craters. Intense fumarolic activity occurs in the summit craters of Ebeko and on the outer flanks of the cone, as well as inside lateral explosion craters. -> See whole entry

Ebulobo (Volcano)

Ebulobo (also called Amburombu or Keo Peak), is a symmetrical stratovolcano in central Flores Island. It has a flat summit lava dome and contains a 250 m summit crater, breached on 3 sides. In 1830, a lava flow (known as Watu Keli lava flow) descended from the northern breach on the summit and reached 4 km length. A small summit eruption occurred on 28th February 1969, where "fire", steam and ash were reported.

Edziza (Volcano)

Mount Ediziza in NW British Columbia, Canada is a large, complex stratovolcano about 1 million years old forming the most recently active of a group of overlapping basaltic shields, lava domes, flows, and central stratovolcanoes. Mount Edziza contains a 2-km-wide, ice-filled summit caldera with a central summit crater and several flank vents. The volcano's lavas range from basalt to rhyolite. Frequent volcanic activity of the complex has been going on for about 8 million years, but the last eruptions occurred only about 1000 years ago. After the Level Mountain Range to the north, Edziza is Canada's second largest young volcano. Volcanic activity of the Edziza complex is caused by extension structures in the underlying basement and the volcano lies along a zone of north-south normal faults east of the Coast Crystalline Complex. Active or recently active warm springs are found in several areas along the western flank of the volcanic plateau, including Elwyn springs (36°C), Taweh springs (46°C), and inactive springs near Mess Lake. All 3 hydrothermal areas are near the youngest lava fields on the plateau and are probably associated with the most recent volcanic activity at Mount Edziza. The vast plateau has also been an important cultural resource. The Tahltan people, who now live largely near Telegraph Creek, British Columbia, used volcanic glass (obsidian) from Mount Edziza to make tools and for trading material. More recently, most of the plateau has been made into a provincial park to preserve the volcanic and culture treasures unique to the northern British Columbia area. -> See whole entry

effusive (Volcanology: effusive (volcanic) eruption)

Effusive means flowing out of lava as opposed to explosive eruptions. -> See whole entry

Egon (Volcano)

Ekarma (Volcano)

Ekarma stratovolcano forms a small 5 x 7.5 km island 8.5 km north of Shiashkotan Island in the northern Kurile Islands, Russia. The volcano belongs to an E-W-trending volcanic chain extending westward from the central part of the main Kuril Island arc. It contains two overlapping basaltic-andesite to andesitic volcanoes, with the western one showing historical activity. Lava flows have flown 3 km in all directions from the summit of the younger cone to the sea, forming a sinuous shoreline. The island summit is formed by a lava dome which formed in the first historic eruption of Ekarma between 1767-69.

El Aguajito (Volcano)

El Aguajito volcano (also known as Santa Ana caldera) is a large 10 km wide caldera at the coast of the Gulf of California, northwest of the older La Reforma caldera. The caldera formed during massive eruptions about 760,000 years ago in what would be called a super-volcano eruption, and its rim is no longer exposed. A series of lava domes that formed about 500,000 years ago, occupy its northern edge. There is an active geothermal system with hot springs along the southern side of the caldera. -> See whole entry

El Chichón (Volcano)

El Hierro (Volcano)

The triangular island of El Hierro is the SW-most and least studied of the Canary Islands. Following intense earthquake swarms since July 2011, a new submarine eruption started in Oct 2011 at a vent ca. 1 km south of La Restinga off the southern tip of the island. The eruption, which could even start to build a new island, is ongoing at the time of updating. Follow the El Hierro news page for the latest events. -> See whole entry

El Misti (Volcano)

The majestic El Misti volcano is Peru's most known and one of its most active volcanoes. It is an andesitic symmetrical stratovolcano that dominates the town of Arequipa, only 16 km to the SW, and its proximity to Peru's second largest city as well its history of explosive eruptions make it one of the world's most dangerous volcanoes. -> See whole entry

El Negrillar (Volcano)

El Negrillar (Negros de Aras) is a group of cinder cones and andesitic lava flows in northern Chile about 20 km north of Socompa volcano. The age of volcanic activity from the field is unknown. The major Holocene debris avalanche from Socompa volcano overlies (= is younger than) some youthful-looking lava flows at the western margin of the El Negrillar field. Note: A volcano called La Negrillar is located nearaby.

El Rosarito Synonym of: San Borja (Volcano)

El Solo (Volcano)

El Solo volcano is large stratovolcano in Argentina at the border with northern Chile and west of Nevados del Ojos de Salado and SE of Tres Cruces volcano. Is comprises 9 eruptive centers. The age of its last eruptions is unknown, but was during the Holocene (less than 11,700 years ago), when it produced thick rhyodacitic pyroclastic-flow deposits that fill adjacent valleys.

El Tatio (Volcano)

El Tatio is one of the most impressive thermal areas of the Andes. The geothermal field is located in northern Chile within a depression east of a chain of older volcanoes, Cerro Deslinde, Cerro Volcán, Cerros del Tatio, and Volcán Tatio. The Hoyada de Los Geisers del Tatio geothermal field covers 30 sq km and contains 85 fumaroles and solfataras, 62 hot springs, 40 geysers, 5 mud volcanoes, and extensive sinter terraces. It is the world's third largest geyser field and the largest geothermal area in the southern hemisphere. It has been tried to install geothermal energy plants, but the remoteness of the area and difficulty in providing infrastructure prohibited its development. -> See whole entry

El Valle (Volcano)

El Valle volcano is a (perhaps still active) stratovolcano 80 km SW of Panama City. The volcano has a broad shape and is cut by the 6 km wide El Valle de Antón caldera, which formed about 56,000 years ago. Lava domes that grew inside the caldera include the Cerro Pajita, Cerro Gaital, and Cerro Caracoral dome complex. -> See whole entry

Elbrus (Volcano)

Elbrus volcano is a large stratovolcano in the western Caucasus of SW Russia. It is the highest mountain of Europe (although some argue that it belongs already to Asia) and the highest volcano of the northern hemisphere. Elbrus has not erupted for about 2000 years, but is considered an active volcano. There is weak solfataric activity near the summit and hot springs are present on the volcano's flanks. -> See whole entry

Emperor of China (Volcano)

The "Emperor of China" is an questionable submarine volcano in the western part of the Banda Sea and rises 1500 m above the sea floor. The mountain has a flat shield shape and there are unconfirmed reports about possible eruptions in 1927 and before 1927. (Source: GVP)

Endut (Volcano)

Endut volcano is one of a complex of 3 closely located old stratovolcanoes known as the Perbakti-Gagak or Kiaraberes-Gagak volcanic complex situated immediately SW of Salak volcano and near Bogor town. The 3 volcanoes of the group are, from S to N, Gunung Endut (1474 m), Gunung Perbakti (1699 m), and Gunung Gagak (1511 m).

epicenter (Earthquakes)

The point on the Earth’s surface vertically above the point (focus or hypocenter) in the crust where an earthquake occurs, i.e. where the seismic rupture nucleates.

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