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Chimborazo (Volcano)

Chimborazo volcano is Ecuador's highest active volcano and the highest in the Northern Andean Volcanic Zone. The massive, ice-capped stratovolcano lies at the southwest end of the main Ecuadorian volcanic arc, the so-called "Avenida de los Volcanes" ("Avenue of Volcanoes") and is located ca. 150 km SSW of Quito and 28 km NW of the town of Riobamba. Chimborazo had been thought to be extinct, but new studies have shown that it still is an active volcano. Although there are no historical eruptions, Chimborazo erupted at least 7 times during the past 10,000 years. These eruptions produced pyroclastic surges that reached down to 3800 m elevation. The average time interval between single eruptions is about 1000 years and the last eruption occurred about 1400 years ago, which means that statistically, it is due for another one. Due to its great height and its geologic history of explosive eruptions, and closeness to populated areas in Ambato and Riobamba basins, it should be considered a dangerous volcano. -> See whole entry

Chinameca (Volcano)

Chinameca volcano (also known as El Pacayal) is a small stratovolcano next to the larger San Miguel volcano in eastern El Salvador. It is connected to San Miguel across a low saddle to the SE. Chinameca is truncated by a 2-km-wide, steep-sided caldera, Laguna Seca el Pacayal. Coffee plantations cover most of the flanks of the volcano. -> See whole entry

Chirinkotan (Volcano)

Chirinkotan volcano is a large, mostly submerged stratovolcano forming a small largely unvegetated and 3 km wide island in the Kuril Island chain. It is located at the far end of an E-W-trending volcanic chain that extends nearly 50 km west of the central part of the main Kuril Islands arc. The volcano is one of the Kurile's most active. Historical eruptions included lava flows on the SE flank during an eruption in the 1880s and were observed by the English fur trader Captain Snow. -> See whole entry

Chirip (Volcano)

Chirip volcano is a twin volcano forming the Chirip peninsula which streches NW into the Okhotsk Sea from central Iturup Island, Kurile Island, 230 km north of Hokkaido, Japan. The 2 stratovolcanoes are Chirip volcano in the N and Bogdan Khmelnitskii to the S. They overly an older volcanic edifice. The lavas erupted from both volcanoes are dominantly basaltic, which is unusual for subduction zone volcanoes. Only 2 historic eruptions are known. The last eruption in 1860 occurred from a vent SE of the summit of Bogdan Khmelnitskii volcano. -> See whole entry

Chirpoi (Volcano)

Chirpoi volcano forms a small island in the central Kurile Islands, Russia. It has a 8-9 km wide partially submerged caldera with several volcanic centers inside the caldera, including active Snow and Cerny volcanoes. The southern caldera rim emerges again on nearby Brat Chirpoey Island 2.5 km SE of Chirpoi. -> See whole entry

Chokai (Volcano)

Chokai volcano (鳥海山 Chōkai-san) is the largest volcano of NE Honshu. It is a massive stratovolcano with a broad conical profile which is why it is called locally Akita-Fuji or Dewa-Fuji. Its height measures from the WNW elongated 15x20 km base about 2000 m. The volcano is located about 60 km west behind the main volcanic front of the Honshu arc and towers above the Japan Sea. Chokai consists of 2 overlapping volcanoes, the western and older volcano Nishi-Chokai and the younger eastern volcano Higashi-Chokai, forming the 2 distinct peaks. Historic records of eruptions, mostly phreatic explosions, go back to the 6th century AD. -> See whole entry

Cinnamon Butte (Volcano)

Cinnamon Butte is one of a group of 3 young cinder cones long a WNW-ESE line immediately west of the Cascade crest and NE of Diamond Lake in Oregon, USA. The other two cones are Thirsty Point and Kelsay Point. -> See whole entry

Clear Lake (Volcano)

Clear Lake volcanic field lies in the northern Coast Ranges, California, ca. 135 km north of San Francisco. The volcanic field consists of lava dome complexes, cinder cones, and maars of basaltic-to-rhyolitic composition. Mount Konocti, a dacitic lava dome on the south shore of Clear Lake, is the largest volcanic feature. The area has intense gethermal activity, caused by a large, still hot silicic magma chamber about 14 km wide and 7 km beneath the surface. It provides the heat source for the Geysers, the world's largest producing geothermal field on the SW side of the volcanic field. Its geothermal power plants can generate approximately 2000 megawatts, enough to power two cities the size of San Francisco. The latest volcanic activity happened about 10,000 years ago and formed maars and cinder cones along the shores of Clear Lake, the larges natural freshwater lake in California. Volcanism around Clear Lake is related to the complex San Andreas transform fault system. -> See whole entry

Cleveland (Volcano)

The beautifully symmetrical Mount Cleveland stratovolcano forms the western half of the uninhabited Chuginadak Island in the eastern Aleutians, connected to the eastern half of the island by a narrow isthmus. It is one of the regions most active volcanoes, but at present has no seismic network. Monitoring of its activity is largely based on satellite observation. -> See whole entry

Coatepeque (Volcano)

Coatepeque volcano is a large 7 x 10 km wide caldera 50 km west of San Salvador city. The caldera is elongated in SE-NW direction, with walls rising up to 800 m above the floor in its southwestern part. An up to 120 m deep and 5 km diameter lake occupies the eastern part of the caldera. Hot springs occur near the lake shores, but there are no certain historical eruptions from Coatepeque. -> See whole entry

Cochiquito (Volcano)

Cochiquito is part of a small group of young volcanoes (Cochiquito, Sillanegra and Ranquil del Sur ) north of the town of Buta Ranquil, Argentina, near where the Río Grande and Río Barrancas join to form the Río Colorado. -> See whole entry

Cofre de Perote (Volcano)

Colachi (Volcano)

Colachi volcano is a stratovolcano in northern Chile. Th youngest lava flows were erupted probably less than 10,000 years ago and cover an area of 7 sq km area on the saddle between Colachi and the neighboring volcano Acamarachi.

Coleman Seamount (Volcano)

Coleman Seamount volcano is a submarine volcano in the western Solomon Islands discovered in 1985 by the Hawaiian "Moana Wave" research vessel during a November 1985 to January 1986 cruise. -> See whole entry

Colima (Volcano)

Comondu-La Purisima (Volcano)

Comondú-La Purísima volcano is a volcanic field of about 9000 sq km in southern Baja California, west of the Sierra de la Giganta. Volcanic activity of La Purısima dates back about 10 million years ago, but might have continued into the Holocene (i.e. less than 10,000 years ago), as some of the cinder cones and blocky lava flows, in the area between Comondú and the La Purísima river, have preserved a very fresh morphology. -> See whole entry

Concepción (Volcano)

Concepción volcano is a steep symmetrical stratovolcano with a perfect shape and one of the most active volcanoes of Nicaragua. During the past 100 years, it has been in a near-constant state of small to medium ash explosions at irregular intervals. Together with its neighbor Madera volcano Concepción forms the NW half of the dumbbell-shaped island of Ometepe in Lake Nicaragua. Both volcanoes are connected by a narrow isthmus. Frequent explosive eruptions during the past decades have increased the height of its summit significantly (more than 100 m) and outdated the existing topographic maps. Because of the frequent ash eruptions, the upper half of the summit cone lacks vegetation. The basaltic-to-dacitic Concepción volcano contains a steep-walled 250 m summit crater with a higher western rim. Flank vents are aligned on N-S-trending fractures and contain chains of spatter cones, cinder cones, lava domes, and maars on the NW, NE, SE, and southern sides. Some of these vents are found down to Lake Nicaragua. -> See whole entry

Conchagua (Volcano)

Conchagua volcano (also known as Cochague) is an eroded stratovolcano on the western side of the Gulf of Fonseca in at the southeastern tip of El Salvador. The main summit of Conchagua is Cerro del Ocote, but the secondary summit Cerro de La Bandera to the ENE of the elongated volcanic edifice seems to be younger. It is uncertain whether the volcano should be considered still active, but it has certainly not erupted for a long time. There is fumarolic activity on some spots of both peaks. -> See whole entry

Conchaguita (Volcano)

Conchagüita volcano at the SE tip of El Salvador forms a small 4-km-wide island in the Gulf of Fonseca separated from Conchagua volcano across a narrow strait. The volcano is a sharp-topped cone with a 100-m-wide summit crater at the southern end and contains a young lava delta that forms a peninsula on the island's eastern side. A crescent-shaped crater open to the west is located at the northern end of the island. The only known historic activity from Conchagüita volcano were small ash emissions in 1892.

Cook volcano (Volcano)

Cook volcano is an alleged active submarine volcano in the Western Solomons, whose existence is questionable and not accepted by Smithsonian's Global Volcanism database, although it is listed as one of the 4 active volcanoes (Savo, Kavachi, Cook and Tinakula) of the Solomon Islands in the 1957 "Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes of the World" by Fischer. These are Savo, Kavachi, Cook and Tinakula. . Possible eruptions of the Cook volcano occurred in 1964 and 1991, and were reported by Australian navy. -> See whole entry

Copahue (Volcano)

Copahue volcano is an active stratovolcano in central Chile at the border with Argentina. The volcano has a 6.5 x 8.5 km wide caldera with several craters aligned on a 2 km ENE-WSW trending zone. The eastern summit crater has an acid 300 m wide crater lake known as El Agrio or Del Agrio which has intense hydrothermal activity. Infrequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions occurred in historic time. Eruptions in the last century have ejected pyroclastic rocks and chilled liquid sulfur fragments. The last one was in 2000. -> See whole entry

Copiapo (Volcano)

Copiapo volcano is an andesitic to dacitic stratovolcano in the Atacama province of northern Chile, close to Nevado Tres Cruces National Park and Laguna del Negro Francisco. Most of the volcano's edifice is several hundreds of thousands to millions years old, and Copiapo might be extinct although there is still solfataric activity. The volcano contains 8 andesitic cinder cones located primarily on the SE flank. The most recent cone is Volcán San Román 7 km north of Copiapó.

copra ()

Copra is the dried meat, or kernel, of the coconut. -> See whole entry

Corcovado (Volcano)

Corcovado volcano is an isolated and little studied stratovolcano in southern Chile. Its only known historic activity was in 1834 and/or 1835. C. Darwin described seing it in activity in 1834 and an explosive eruption was reported to have occurred in November 1835 by a resident from Chiloe, 60 km west of the volcano. Corcovado is ice-covered and basaltic to basaltic-andesite in composition. It has several young (Holocene) cinder cones on its flanks, which are likely the source of its recent eruptions.

Cordon de Puntas Negras (Volcano)

Cordón de Puntas Negras is a stratovolcano in northern Chile 46 km SE of Lascar volcano. The volcano has a number of fresh-looking cones and craters such as Cerros Cenizas, Aguas Calientes, Laguna Escondida, and Chinchilla with well-preserved summit craters and short lava flows. In addition, there is a distinct maar and a large, 13 sq km silicic lava flow and dome complex. It is thought that some of these vents are less than 10,000 years old, or even historical in age. The youngest of the complex is a crater SE of Cerro Laguna Escondidax. -> See whole entry

Cordón del Azufre (Volcano)

Cordón del Azufre is a small volcanic complex on the Argentina/Chile border. The volcano consists of a cluster of lava flows from a row of vents on the NW (Argentinian) side, and a 5 km long chain of vents along the border with Chile. Note: there is a volcano with a similar name Cerro del Azufre in Northern Chile. -> See whole entry

Coronado (Volcano)

Coronado volcano is a small stratovolcano in the Gulf of California. It forms a 2 km wide peninsula at the northern tip of Coronado Island, 3 km off the eastern coast of Baja California in the Canal de los Ballenas. The roughly 440-m-high volcano contains a 300 x 160 m wide crater. Little is known about Volcán Coronado and it is unknown when it last erupted. Fumarolic activity was reported in September 1539.

Coropuna (Volcano)

Nevado Coropuna volcano in southern Peru is the largest and highest active volcano in Peru. It rises majestically 4500 m from the surrounding terrain and forms an 10x20 km E-W elongated complex. The massive ice-covered complex has at least 6 summit cones. The flanks of the volcano are characterized by deep canyons. There have been no recorded eruptions and the age of the last eruption is unknown, but there is solfataric activity suggesting that the volcano might still be active.

Corvo (Volcano)

The small 3.5 x 6 km island of Corvo is located at the NW end of the Azores archipelago. -> See whole entry

Cosigüina (Volcano)

Cosigüina (or Cosegüina) volcano in western Nicaragua forms a large peninsula into the Gulf of Fonseca. The last eruption of the volcano was in 1959, but periods of unrest have occurred in recent years and in 1835, it produced the largest known historic eruption in Nicaragua. The basaltic to andesitic volcano has a concentric structure consisting of the remnants of an large older cone, which collapsed more than 10,000 years ago and left a crescent-shaped somma rim on the outside. In the old caldera, a young cone has been built and is itself truncated by an elliptical 2.4 x 2 km wide and 500 m deep caldera. The young caldera crater contains a beautiful lake. Most deposits inside the caldera are from lava flows, while ash and pumice layers predominate the outer flanks.

Coso (Volcano)

The Coso volcanic field is located east of the Sierra Nevada Range at the western edge of the Basin and Range province, California. It consists of 38 old rhyolitic lava domes and basaltic cinder cones covering a 400 sq km area. volcano is located 200 km north of Los Angeles, California. Eruptions in this area over the past 4 million years produced 35 km3 of lava, the youngest eruptions are probably from the basaltic Volcano Peak cinder cone and occurred more than 33,000 years ago. Coso Geothermal System There is geothermal activity in an ENE trending zone between Sugarloaf Mountain and the Coso Hot Springs. The Coso Hot Springs have fumaroles and intermittently active geysers. Fumaroles at Devils Kitchen and the adjacent Nicol area are located in an explosion crater surrounding a rhyolite lava dome. -> See whole entry

Cotopaxi (Volcano)

Cotopaxi is one of South America's most famous volcanoes and one of its most active ones. With its 5911 m it also ranks among the world's highest active volcanoes (26th highest). The majestic, snow covered symmetrical stratovolcano is located on the Eastern Cordillera of the Ecuadorian Andes, 60 km south of Quito and 35 km northeast of Latacunga. Cotopaxi's steep cone has nested summit craters, the outer of which measures 550 x 800 m in diameter. Cotopaxi erupted more than 50 times since 1738. The most violent historical eruptions of Cotopaxi volcano were in 1744, 1768, 1877, and 1904. its eruptions often produced pyroclastic flows and destructive mud flows (lahars). Some lahars have travelled more than 100 km and reached the Pacific to the west and the Amazon Basin to the east. At the moment, it has been dormant for over 70 years, which is an unusual long interval in its recent history. -> See whole entry

crater (Volcanology)

A depression often on the top or the flanks of a volcano usually created by explosions of lava from the vent.

Crater Basalt (Volcano)

Crater Basalt is a volcanic field of 9 cinder cones in the northern Patagonia region of southern Argentina 130 km SE of San Carlos de Bariloche. The volcanic field covers an area of 700 sq km, and consists of cinder and spatter cones with many overlapping blocky basalt lava flows. -> See whole entry

Crater Lake (Volcano)

Crater Lake in the southern Cascade Range of Oregon, USA, is one of the most beautiful calderas in the world. It formed by the collapse of a massive stratovolcano known as Mount Mazama about 6850 years ago. The caldera measures 8x10 km in diameter and is filled with a lake of up to 600 m depth. A small island, Wizzard Island, is a cinder cone that grew after the formation of the caldera. The caldera is part of Crater Lake National Park. -> See whole entry

Crater Mountain (Volcano)

Crater Mountain volcano is a curved volcanic chain of 3000 m and higher peaks located in the highlands of New Guinea. The volcanoes are deeply eroded, but there are young flows covering the steep-sided valleys to the north and east, which might be of Holocene age. The easternmost Agotu Valley contains several small craters, cinder cones, and maars. Crater Mountain is part of the 2700 km2 Crater Mountain Wildlife Management Area, known for its spectacular scenery and traditional villages.

Craters of the Moon (Volcano)

The Craters of the Moon are located at the NW end of the largest lava field of the Snake River Plain in Idaho, USA. The volcanic field contains over 60 lava flows, 25 cinder cones up to 250-m high, and 8 eruptive fissure systems, and covers an area of 1600 km2. The Craters of the Moon formed in 8 eruptive periods each lasting several hundred years, and separated by quiescence intervals of up to 3000 years. The eruptions began about 15,000 years ago, and ended with the most recent (so far) eruptions only 2100 years ago. In contrast to the Craters of the Moon, most other lava fields in the Snake River Plain formed during single, short eruptions. On average, lava output rate was 1.5 cubic km/1000 years for the period 15,000 to 7,000 years ago and increased to 2.8 cubic km /1000 years for the interval from 7,000 to 2,000 years ago. -> See whole entry

Crow Lagoon (Volcano)

Crow Lagoon is a little-known volcanic center located north of Prince Rupert, British Columbia, Canada. There are thick layers of basaltic scoria from eruptions less than 10,000 years old. Crow Lagoon is one of the top 10 volcanoes in Canada with recent seismic activity. The others include: Castle Rock, Mount Edziza volcanic complex, Mount Cayley, Hoodoo Mountain, The Volcano, Mount Silverthrone, Mount Meager, Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and Mount Garibaldi.

crust (Geology)

The outermost layer of the Earth, ranging from about 5 to 65 km in thickness worldwide, composed of plutonic, metamorphic, sedimentary and volcanic rocks. -> See whole entry

crystal (Geology)

In chemistry, mineralogy, and materials science, a crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. -> See whole entry

Cu-Lao Re (Volcano)

Cu-Lao Re volcano is a group of 4 basaltic sub-aerial and 9 submarine volcanic cones 150 km off the coast of central Vietnam. 3 of the subaerial cones form Cù-Lao Ré Island, and the fourth forms Cù-Lao Bo Bai Island.

Cuernos de Negros (Volcano)

Cuernos de Negros (also known as Magaso) is a large stratovolcano complex located in SE Negros Island, Philippines, near the city of Dumaguete. It is unknown when it has erupted after since the last radiocarbon-dated activity about 14,000 years ago. At present, it still has active fumaroles at the highest crater of Magaso, sulphuric springs at the ESE flanks and hot springs on the NE flank. An increase in fumarolic activity was observed after (and probably triggered by) a major tectonic earthquake in 1902. The Palinpinon geothermal field is located south of the Okoy River on the north side of the volcano. -> See whole entry

Cuernos del Diablo (Volcano)

Cuernos del Diablo volcano is a partially glacially eroded basaltic stratovolcano in southern Chile. The volcano has been frequently active in the Holocene (within the past 11,700 years) and produced flank cones and erupted basaltic lava flows. Most eruptions took place from vents on the SW flank and from the summit to the NW base of the volcano. There are no historically recorded eruptions, but it is possible that the volcano has been active in the past centuries. Fumaroles were observed on a flank cone in 1931.

Cuicocha (Volcano)

Cuicocha volcano is a beautiful caldera in northern Ecuador 100 km north of Quito. The volcano has a 3 km wide lake filled caldera and sits at the feet of the sharp-peaked (extinct) Cotacachi stratovolcano. There are gas emissions from several locations in the caldera lake at present indicating the volcano is still active. -> See whole entry

Cumbal (Volcano)

Cumbal volcano is an active glacier-capped stratovolcano in SW Colombia, located 25 km SW of Azufral volcano and 5.5 km NE of the town of Cumbal - Pueblo. Cumbal is the southernmost active volcano of Colombia that has erupted in historic times. A young lava dome occupies the 250-m-wide summit crater, and eruptions from the upper east flank produced a 6-km-long lava field. Thermal springs occur on the SE flanks. -> See whole entry

Dacht-i-Navar (Volcano)

Dacht-i-Navar volcano is a group of 15 lava domes in west-central Afghanistan SW of Kabul. Their age is unknown, but it is speculated that they have erupted less than 10,000 years ago and should be considered potentially active. The lava domes are trachyandesitic in composition and located along the southern margin of Dacht-i-Navar.

dacite (Volcanology)

Dacite is an igneous, volcanic rock with a high iron content found at many lava-domes. -> See whole entry

Daikoku (Volcano)

Daikoku is a sumbarine volcano with a conical summit in the Japanese Volcano Islands chain. It sits on an elongated E-W-trending ridge SE of Eifuku submarine volcano and rises to within 323 m of the sea surface. It has a crater with a black pool of liquid sulfur discovered in 2006. Daikoku submarine volcano is one of about a dozen submarine volcanoes displaying hydrothermal activity in the southern part of the Izu-Marianas chain. -> See whole entry

Daisetsu (Volcano)

Daisetsu (also spelled Taisetsu) volcano is a group of 8 stratovolcanoes, lava domes and a small 2 km wide caldera in the Daisetsu-zan National Park (the roof of Hokkaido) in central Hokkaido. Asahi (旭岳 Asahi-dake) volcano is the highest peak of the volcanic complex and the highest mountain in Hokkaido. No historical eruptions are known from Daisetsu, although the last eruption must have taken place in or after 1739 AD. At present, there are fumaroles and sulfur was mined at Asahi-dake. Daisetsu-zan National Park is the largest national park of Japan covering 230,000 ha. The park stretches from Mt. Torashiumu to the Tokachi Mountains. It is known for its hot springs, which can be found at Sounkyou, Yukomanbetsu, Tenninkyou, Nukabira, Shirogane, Shikaribetsu and Tomuraushi. -> See whole entry

Dakataua (Volcano)

Dakataua volcano is a large caldera on the northern end of Willaumez Peninsula, New Britain. The elliptical caldera, 13.5 km E-W and 10.5 km N-S, is one of New Britain's most impressive volcanoes. The caldera contains the 12 km wide horseshoe-shaped Lake Dakataua which is at only 50 m above sea level. The Dakataua caldera formed during probably several Plinian eruptions. The last one occurred about 1150 years ago, and was followed by at least 5 subplinian to vulcanian explosions. The highest point of the volcanic complex is Mt Makalia (350m), a small andesitic stratovolcano (or large cinder cone) that formed after the caldera. Together with other post-caldera cones and explosion craters aligned on a N-S line, they form a large peninsula of the lake. The last activity from the volcano was from Makalia in the lat 19th century. At present, there is fumarolic activity occurs at the summit of Makalia and warm springs are found in the lake at the base of the mountain. -> See whole entry

Dalaffilla (Volcano)

Stratovolcano in the Erta Ale range (Ethiopia) which started a major effusive eruption on Nov 4, 2008 - one of the largest effusive eruptions in Africa during historic times. -> See whole entry

Dallol (Volcano)

The Dallol volcano, or rather the Dallol hydrothermal field is located in a remote part of the northern Danakil Depression in NE Ethiopia. It is the lowest known sub-aerial volcanic area in the world. Dallol is one of the world's most spectacular landscape: a vast area of uplifted thick salt deposits affected by intense fumarolic activity, probably caused by an active volcanic system beneath several kilometers of evaporation salt deposits. Dallol is said to be the hottest place on the planet, with average annual temperatures well above 30 deg C. The area commonly referred to Dallol volcano contains the approx. 1.5 x 3 km wide Dallol "mountain" (rising about 50 m above the great salt lake) near the border with Eritrea, and nearby warm springs including the Yellow Lake, the Black Mountain with the Blue Lake, said to be an explosion crater from a hydrothermal eruption in 1926. Dallol is famous for its hot brine, and multicolored white, pink, red, yellow, green, gray and black salt deposits, hot springs and miniature geysers. These bizarre structures form in a complex interaction of solution and recrystallization processes driven by hydrothermal waters and rapid evaporation. -> See whole entry

Damavand (Volcano)

Damavand volcano is a majestic stratovolcano located 70 km NE of Tehran and 70 km south of the Caspian Sea. Mt Damavand is the highest peak in the Middle East and the second highest volcano in Asia (after Kunlun volcano in Tibet). Damavand last erupted about 7,300 years ago. There are no historical eruptions, but fumaroles at the summit crater suggest that the volcano is still active. -> See whole entry

Danau (Volcano)

The Danau caldera at the western end of Java Island belongs to the Gunung Karang volcano. It was formed in Pleistocene (+- 2,5 mil. years ago). 10000 years ago two andesitic to basaltic volcanoes erupted and built up a stratovolcano until 1778m altitude (Karang volcano). Some active hydrothermal systems with hot springs are the today´s last sign of activity. -> See whole entry

Dar-Alages (Volcano)

A group of six cinder and lava cones of Pleistocene-to-Holocene age is located in southern Armenia on the western slopes of the Vardeniss volcanic ridge, south of Lake Sevan. -> See whole entry

Datong (Volcano)

The Datong volcanoes (Datong-Fengzen volcanic field) are located 3 km northeast of Datong City at Xigelaoshan in North China west of Beijing. The volcanic field contains approx. 80 cinder cones and small lava domes. The most notable cones are Heishan (1,422 meters above sea level), Jinshan (1,368 meters above sea level), Langwoshan (1,028 meters above sea level) and Gelaoshan (1,276 meters above sea level). The well-preserved Jinshan cone is a major tourist attraction of the area. There are unconfirmed records of historic eruptions around 450 AD. -> See whole entry

debris avalanche (Volcanology)

A sudden collapse of volcanic material from an unstable side of a volcano. Debris avalanches are a particularly violent type of pyroclastic flows (in its broader meaning).

Deception Island (Volcano)

Deception Island is a 14 km wide, ring-shaped volcanic island at the south-western end of the South Shetland Islands, NE of Graham Land Peninsul. It is one of the most well-known active volcanoes of the Antarctic region. Deception Island is a sea-filled caldera with a diameter of 7 km with a narrow entry (Neptunes Bellows) on the SE side. The island forms a natural harbour and was a popular base for whaling ships in the 19th century. There were huts and shelters and, later, scientific observatory stations, which were damaged during the last eruptions in 1967 and 1969. -> See whole entry

Demon (Volcano)

Demon is a stratovolcano on the extreme northern tip of Iturup Island, Kuriles. The volcano has had no recent eruptions, but might still be active. It was built during the past 10,000 years inside a glacial valley 3 km east of the older eroded Kamui volcano. Damon's summit has a 1.5-km-wide crater open to the east.

Dempo (Volcano)

Derbi-Tayga (Volcano)

Derbi-Tayga is a 2605-m-high glacially eroded shield volcano in the Azas Plateau in southeastern Russia near Lak Baikal.

Descabezado Grande (Volcano)

Descabezado Grande ("the big decapitated") volcano in central Chile is an active stratovolocano with a 1.4 km wide ice-filled summit crater, a basal diameter of 11 km and a volume of 30 cubic km. The only historical eruption was in 1932, when a lateral crater formed on the upper NNE, shortly after the end of the major 1932 eruption from nearby Quizapu volcano on the north flank of Cerro Azul. At the moment the volcano is dormant, but the NE corner of the caldera has active fumaroles. -> See whole entry

Devils Garden (Volcano)

Devils Garden volcanic field in central Oregon, east of the Cascade Range, is the NW-most of a group of 3 young basaltic lava fields SE of Newberry volcano. It covers 117 sq km and consists of fissure vents and lava flows. -> See whole entry

Devis Lake (Volcano)

Davis Lake area in Oregon, USA, is a volcanic field with 3 cinder cones and lava flows of three cinder cones and associated lava flows. -> See whole entry

Dgida Basin (Volcano)

Dgida volcano (Dgida Basin, Dgida-Tunkin volcanic field) is a group of cinder cones in southeastern Russia 23 km from the border with Mongolia and 125 km SW of Lake Baikal. It belongs to the Tunkin Depression volcanic field and is considered to be related to an intraplate hot spot.

Diamond Craters (Volcano)

Diamond Craters is a 60 sq km volcanic field in SE Oregon, 11 km east of highway 205 and 64 km (40 miles) southeast of the town of Burns. It consists of cinder cones, maars (explosion craters) and lava flows. Diamond Craters were named after the Diamond Ranch, established in the area by the pioneer Mace McCoy and his partner Albert Hugh Robie. The ranch used a diamond-shaped brand, hence the name. -> See whole entry

Didicas (Volcano)

Didicas volcano is a small volcanic island 22 km NE of Camiguin Island, 60 km off the northern coast of Luzon, Philippines. Until 1952, it was a submarine volcano that had previously formed temporary islands during eruptions. In the eruption of 1952 the submarine volcano formed a new lava dome that surfaced above sea level and has become now a permanent new island. -> See whole entry

Dieng (Volcano)

The Dieng volcanic complex forms a 6x14km large highland plateau in Central Java west of Yogyakarta. It consists of overlapping volcanoes and a large caldera, lava domes, cones, and explosion craters many of which are filled by lakes. It is known for its varied colorful volcanic scenery and hydrothermal activity, and a sacred area to the Javanese people; some of the oldest Hindu temples of Java are found here, dating back to the 8th century AD. -> See whole entry

diorite (Volcanology)

Diorite is an intrusive igneous rock of intermediate silica content (53-63%). It is the equivalent of its extrusive (volcanic) counterpart andesite. -> See whole entry

Dobu (Dawson Strait Group) (Volcano)

Dobu is one of 3 volcanic centres of the Dawson Strait Group. It forms the small Dobu Island SE of Fergusson Island. Dobu volcano consists of a composite cone with a summit crater and a small satellite cone. It, too, has produced obsidian lava flows. -> See whole entry

Doma Peaks (Volcano)

Doma Peaks is an andesitic stratovolcano located at the western end of a volcanic chain in the highlands of New Guinea. The volcano has 2 westward facing escarpments which are probably the result of landslides. It has a main cater breached towards the west by the Arua River, flank vents southwest of the summit, and a lava field on the northeastern flank. The age of the last eruption is unknown. At present, there is geothermal activity at the headwaters of the Arua and Tebi Rivers.

Domuyo (Volcano)

Volcán Domuyo is a stratovolcano in NW Argentinia and perhaps still an active one. It has a 15-km wide caldera, within which at least 14 dacitic lava domes and other eruptive centers were constructed. Other 5 vents are outside the caldera, the largest being the Volcán Chanque-Mallín volcano on the ESE flank. Chanque-Mallín itself is truncated by a 4-km-wide caldera and contains a new lava dome.

Doña Juana (Volcano)

Doña Juana is a forested stratovolcano 56 km NE of Galeras volcano. The volcano has 2 calderas, the younger of which contains the active summit cone. The only historic eruption started in 1897 and lasted almost 10 years, during which the youngest of several summit lava dome was built. Large pyroclastic flows were produced during this eruption. -> See whole entry

Doni Wijanyanto ()

Close friend of Tom, Indonesian volcanologist Doni Wijanyanto, works for the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia and guides groups for VolcanoDiscovery. -> See whole entry

Dotsero (Volcano)

The small Dotsero maar in NW Colorado, 2 km NE of the small town Dotsero, near the junction of the Colorado and Eagle Rivers west of the Gore Range, is the only volcano in Colorado that has had activity in the past 10,000 years. It erupted ca. 4000 years ago, producing an explosion crater (maar), lahars, and a 3 km long lava flow. The crater of Dotsero is 700 m in diameter and 400 m deep with a flat floor covered by debris. It exposes a lithic-rich pyroclastic deposit, a strombolian scoria-fall deposit, lahars deposits, and a lava flow. -> See whole entry

Doyo (Volcano)

Doyo Seamount is the southernmost of the 7 Shichiyo Seamounts, named for the 7 days of the week. Doyo ("Saturday") is a basaltic-andesite submarine caldera that rises 2340 m from the sea floor to within 860 m of the sea surface. It has a large horseshoe-shaped 3 x 10 km wide summit caldera. Major hydrothermal activity was observed in July 1990, and the volcano was reclassified as active by the Japan Meteorological Agency.

Dubbi (Volcano)

Dubbi volcano in Eritrea is a large volcanic massif rising 1625 m above the the western shore of the Red Sea. It is located in the Afar triangle south of the crystalline basement rocks in the Danakil Alps east of the Danakil depression and east of the Erta Ale range. The two most-recent eruptive centers are fissure systems that extend NW-SE and NNE-SSW. The former produced lava flows that reached the Red Sea in 1400 AD. The second created 19 small craters at the summit in 1861. Ash fell more than 300 km from the volcano. Two villages were destroyed and more than 100 persons were killed during Africa's largest eruption in historical time. Lava flows from the 1861 eruption traveled as far as 22 km and reached the coast. An eruption on 12 June 2011 from neighboring Nabro was originally believed to be from Dubbi. -> See whole entry

Dukono volcano (Volcano)

Durango (Volcano)

Durango volcano is a volcanic field in north-central Mexico north of the city of Durango, located at the NW end of the Meseta Central and the eastern edge of the Sierra Madre Occidental. The volcanic field covers 2100 sq km and contains about 100 maars, cinder cones and lava flows. Young activity occurred from the La Breña cone only a few thousand years ago. -> See whole entry

E-san (Volcano)

E-san (恵山(えさん) in Japanese) is the southernmost active volcano on Hokkaido. It is a small andesitic stratovolcano located in the southeast of the Kameda-hanto Peninsula extending into the Pacific Ocean from the south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait from Honshu. It has a lava dome forming its summit and another lava dome to the NW. Both have been active within the past 10,000 years, the summit lava dome forming about 9000 years ago. The only known historic eruptions were a small phreatic eruption in 1846 which produced a lahar with many fatalities, and a small explosion in 1874. E-san has many active fumaroles in a thermal area on the upper NW flank. Fumaroles are located on the upper NW flank. At the foot of Mt. E-san is the Esan-onsen Hot Spring, a popular attraction since the latter half of the 19th century, it is renowned for its distinctive wine-red colored water. -> See whole entry

Eagle Lake (Volcano)

Eagle lake is a volcanic field at the junction of the Sierra Nevada, Cascades, and Basin Range in California, USA. It contains 15 small cinder cones, fissures and lava flows.

Ebeko (Volcano)

Ebeko is one of the most active volcanoes in the Kurile Islands, located in northern Paramushir Island south of Kamchatka. Ebeko volcano has a flat top with 3 summit craters aligned SSW-NNE. The eastern part of the southern crater contains a large boiling spring. The middle crater has a hot lake with solfataras along its shore. The lower northern crater has a small, cold lake and is separated from the middle crater by a narrow ridge. Historical activity has been recorded since the late 18th century and consisted in small to moderate explosive eruptions from the summit craters. Intense fumarolic activity occurs in the summit craters of Ebeko and on the outer flanks of the cone, as well as inside lateral explosion craters. -> See whole entry

Ebulobo (Volcano)

Ebulobo (also called Amburombu or Keo Peak), is a symmetrical stratovolcano in central Flores Island. It has a flat summit lava dome and contains a 250 m summit crater, breached on 3 sides. In 1830, a lava flow (known as Watu Keli lava flow) descended from the northern breach on the summit and reached 4 km length. A small summit eruption occurred on 28th February 1969, where "fire", steam and ash were reported.

Edziza (Volcano)

Mount Ediziza in NW British Columbia, Canada is a large, complex stratovolcano about 1 million years old forming the most recently active of a group of overlapping basaltic shields, lava domes, flows, and central stratovolcanoes. Mount Edziza contains a 2-km-wide, ice-filled summit caldera with a central summit crater and several flank vents. The volcano's lavas range from basalt to rhyolite. Frequent volcanic activity of the complex has been going on for about 8 million years, but the last eruptions occurred only about 1000 years ago. After the Level Mountain Range to the north, Edziza is Canada's second largest young volcano. Volcanic activity of the Edziza complex is caused by extension structures in the underlying basement and the volcano lies along a zone of north-south normal faults east of the Coast Crystalline Complex. Active or recently active warm springs are found in several areas along the western flank of the volcanic plateau, including Elwyn springs (36°C), Taweh springs (46°C), and inactive springs near Mess Lake. All 3 hydrothermal areas are near the youngest lava fields on the plateau and are probably associated with the most recent volcanic activity at Mount Edziza. The vast plateau has also been an important cultural resource. The Tahltan people, who now live largely near Telegraph Creek, British Columbia, used volcanic glass (obsidian) from Mount Edziza to make tools and for trading material. More recently, most of the plateau has been made into a provincial park to preserve the volcanic and culture treasures unique to the northern British Columbia area. -> See whole entry

effusive (Volcanology: effusive (volcanic) eruption)

Effusive means flowing out of lava as opposed to explosive eruptions. -> See whole entry

Egon (Volcano)

Ekarma (Volcano)

Ekarma stratovolcano forms a small 5 x 7.5 km island 8.5 km north of Shiashkotan Island in the northern Kurile Islands, Russia. The volcano belongs to an E-W-trending volcanic chain extending westward from the central part of the main Kuril Island arc. It contains two overlapping basaltic-andesite to andesitic volcanoes, with the western one showing historical activity. Lava flows have flown 3 km in all directions from the summit of the younger cone to the sea, forming a sinuous shoreline. The island summit is formed by a lava dome which formed in the first historic eruption of Ekarma between 1767-69.

El Aguajito (Volcano)

El Aguajito volcano (also known as Santa Ana caldera) is a large 10 km wide caldera at the coast of the Gulf of California, northwest of the older La Reforma caldera. The caldera formed during massive eruptions about 760,000 years ago in what would be called a super-volcano eruption, and its rim is no longer exposed. A series of lava domes that formed about 500,000 years ago, occupy its northern edge. There is an active geothermal system with hot springs along the southern side of the caldera. -> See whole entry

El Chichón (Volcano)

El Hierro (Volcano)

The triangular island of El Hierro is the SW-most and least studied of the Canary Islands. Following intense earthquake swarms since July 2011, a new submarine eruption started in Oct 2011 at a vent ca. 1 km south of La Restinga off the southern tip of the island. The eruption, which could even start to build a new island, is ongoing at the time of updating. Follow the El Hierro news page for the latest events. -> See whole entry

El Misti (Volcano)

The majestic El Misti volcano is Peru's most known and one of its most active volcanoes. It is an andesitic symmetrical stratovolcano that dominates the town of Arequipa, only 16 km to the SW, and its proximity to Peru's second largest city as well its history of explosive eruptions make it one of the world's most dangerous volcanoes. -> See whole entry

El Negrillar (Volcano)

El Negrillar (Negros de Aras) is a group of cinder cones and andesitic lava flows in northern Chile about 20 km north of Socompa volcano. The age of volcanic activity from the field is unknown. The major Holocene debris avalanche from Socompa volcano overlies (= is younger than) some youthful-looking lava flows at the western margin of the El Negrillar field. Note: A volcano called La Negrillar is located nearaby.

El Rosarito Synonym of: San Borja (Volcano)

El Solo (Volcano)

El Solo volcano is large stratovolcano in Argentina at the border with northern Chile and west of Nevados del Ojos de Salado and SE of Tres Cruces volcano. Is comprises 9 eruptive centers. The age of its last eruptions is unknown, but was during the Holocene (less than 11,700 years ago), when it produced thick rhyodacitic pyroclastic-flow deposits that fill adjacent valleys.

El Tatio (Volcano)

El Tatio is one of the most impressive thermal areas of the Andes. The geothermal field is located in northern Chile within a depression east of a chain of older volcanoes, Cerro Deslinde, Cerro Volcán, Cerros del Tatio, and Volcán Tatio. The Hoyada de Los Geisers del Tatio geothermal field covers 30 sq km and contains 85 fumaroles and solfataras, 62 hot springs, 40 geysers, 5 mud volcanoes, and extensive sinter terraces. It is the world's third largest geyser field and the largest geothermal area in the southern hemisphere. It has been tried to install geothermal energy plants, but the remoteness of the area and difficulty in providing infrastructure prohibited its development. -> See whole entry

El Valle (Volcano)

El Valle volcano is a (perhaps still active) stratovolcano 80 km SW of Panama City. The volcano has a broad shape and is cut by the 6 km wide El Valle de Antón caldera, which formed about 56,000 years ago. Lava domes that grew inside the caldera include the Cerro Pajita, Cerro Gaital, and Cerro Caracoral dome complex. -> See whole entry

Elbrus (Volcano)

Elbrus volcano is a large stratovolcano in the western Caucasus of SW Russia. It is the highest mountain of Europe (although some argue that it belongs already to Asia) and the highest volcano of the northern hemisphere. Elbrus has not erupted for about 2000 years, but is considered an active volcano. There is weak solfataric activity near the summit and hot springs are present on the volcano's flanks. -> See whole entry

Emperor of China (Volcano)

The "Emperor of China" is an questionable submarine volcano in the western part of the Banda Sea and rises 1500 m above the sea floor. The mountain has a flat shield shape and there are unconfirmed reports about possible eruptions in 1927 and before 1927. (Source: GVP)

Endut (Volcano)

Endut volcano is one of a complex of 3 closely located old stratovolcanoes known as the Perbakti-Gagak or Kiaraberes-Gagak volcanic complex situated immediately SW of Salak volcano and near Bogor town. The 3 volcanoes of the group are, from S to N, Gunung Endut (1474 m), Gunung Perbakti (1699 m), and Gunung Gagak (1511 m).

epicenter (Earthquakes)

The point on the Earth’s surface vertically above the point (focus or hypocenter) in the crust where an earthquake occurs, i.e. where the seismic rupture nucleates.

Epomeo Synonym of: Ischia ()

Erciyes Dağ (Volcano)

The massive, eroded stratovolcano Erciyes Dağ dominates the northern end of the Sultansazligi Basin in central Anatolia. It covers an area of about 1300 sq km. -> See whole entry

Erebus (Volcano)

Mount Erebus stratovolcano is the highest and most active volcano of Antarctica, one of the Volcanic Seven Summits, and the largest of 4 volcanoes that form the roughly triangular Ross Island (Mt Erebus, and the extinct Mt. Bird to the north, Mt. Terra Nova and Mt. Terror to the east). Hut Point Peninsula to the south is the location of McMurdo Station (the main US base) and Scott Base (the main New Zealand base). Mount Erebus volcano, located on the western half of Ross Island, Antarctica, is the world's southernmost historically active volcano and famous for its active boiling lava lake. Its summit temperature averages between -20 (summer) and -50 deg C (winter) and it is covered by glaciers. It was discovered by explorer Caption James Ross in 1841 and climbed 1908 by members of Ernest Shackleton's expedition. Since then it was visited only very rarely in the following 100 years. -> See whole entry

Erta Ale (Volcano)

Escorial (Volcano)

Cerro Escorial volcano is a small andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano in northern Chile on the border with Argentina. The volcano contains a 1 km wide well-preserved summit crater of possible Holocene age. There are young-looking lava flows mostly towards the Chilean side, but they are probably more than 300,000 years old. A large sulfur mine active until around 1978, La Casualidad or Mina Julia, is located 4 km SW of the volcano in an area of extensive hydrothermal alteration. A present, the volcano has warm springs (frozen at the surface), mud vents, and fumaroles, suggesting that the volcano is still active. -> See whole entry

Esjufjöll (Volcano)

The subglacial Esjufjöll volcano at the SE part of the Vatnajökull icecap, north of Öræfajökull volcano, may contain a central caldera. A minor eruption in 1927 that produced a large jökulhlaup is the only known historical activity from Esjufjöll. -> See whole entry

Esteli (Volcano)

Esteli volcano is a group of young fissure vents, cones and lava flows located 36 km south of Honduras in the northern interior highlands between the town of Estelí and the border. The volcanic center is not on the main volcanic front of Nicaragua, but 70 km NE of the main volcanic arc. Some of the lava flows and cones near Esteli town could be less than 10,000 years old. -> See whole entry

Etna (Volcano: Etna volcano, Sicily)

Etna is Europe's largest and most active volcano. Etna is famous for its frequent spectacular lava eruptions, most of which, however, do not pose danger for the population. On Sicily itself, Etna is also called "Mongibello". -> See whole entry

explosive (Volcanology: explosive (volcanic) eruption)

Explosive eruptions occur, when the erupting magma is ejected as fragments into the air, as opposed to effusive eruptions producing lava flows. -> See whole entry

Eyjafjallajökull (Volcano)

Eyafjallajökull volcano (its name meaning Island-Mountain under a glacier) under the small homonymous glacier in southern Iceland erupted spectacularly on 20 March 2010, after having been dormant for almost 200 years. During its most violent phase, the subglacial eruption produced large ash plumes that drifted over Europe and forced an unprecedented closure of airspace over most of Europe for several days in mid April 2010. -> See whole entry

Fajã de Cima volcan (Volcano)

Nearly 200 scoria cones dot the "waist" of Sao Miguel Island between Sete Cidades and Agua de Pau volcanoes. -> See whole entry

Falso Azufre (Volcano)

Falso Azufre volcano is a volcanic complex on the Chile/ Argentina border. The 15 km long complex contains overlapping craters and lava domes. The western part contains the highest peak, Cerro Falso Azufre.

Fantale (Volcano)

Fantale (also spelled Fantalle or Fantala) is a large stratovolcano in the Ethiopian Rift Valley west of Lake Awash. It contains a large spectacular summit caldera. Fantale's historic eruptions produced lava flows that descended to the east side into the valley and lake Awash. An eruption during the 13th century destroyed a town and church located south of the volcano. In 1820, a 4 km long fissure eruption occured on the east flank and sent basaltic lava flows both into the caldera and outside, reaching the bottom of the Rift valley. -> See whole entry

Fayal (Volcano)

The island of Fayal, also spelled Faial, is the nearest of the central Azorean islands to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. -> See whole entry

fissure vent (Volcanology)

A fissure vent, also known as a volcanic fissure or simply fissure, is a linear volcanic vent through which lava erupts. -> See whole entry

Flores (Volcano)

Flores Island and Corvo Island to its north are located far west of the rest of the Azores islands and are the only two Azorean volcanoes lying west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. -> See whole entry

Fort Selkirk (Volcano)

Fort Selkirk is a volcanic field near the junction of the Yukon and Pelly rivers in central Yukon. It is the northernmost young volcanic field in Canada. The volcano consists of large valley-filling lava flows and 3 cinder cones. The volcanic field developed at the intersection of two prominent fault lines, one running east-west, marked by the Pelly River and the lower Yukon River, and the other one NW-SE, defined by the upper Yukon River. The first activity of the volcanic field were effusive, valley-filling eruptions of fluid basalt lava, followed by the construction of 3 cinder cones during strombolian-type eruptions and related emplacement of viscous aa lava flows. -> See whole entry

fossile (Geology)

Fossils are the mineralized or otherwise preserved remains or traces (such as footprints) of animals, plants, and other organisms. -> See whole entry

Four Craters (Volcano)

The Four Craters lava field, along with Devils Garden and Squaw Ridge, is the SE-most of a group of 3 basaltic lava fields SE of Newberry volcano in the High Lava Plains of central Oregon. The Four Craters lava field contains 4 spatter cones along a 4-km-long NW-SE-trending line. The NW-most and highest cone has a well-preserved crater rim. The other 3 cones are breached to the west, SW, and south, respectively. The age of the Four Craters lava field is unknown, but probably similar to that of Squaw Ridge and Devils Garden, i.e. most likely about 10-20,000 years ago.

Fremrinamur (Volcano)

Fuego (Volcano)

Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. It typically has strombolian activity and sometimes phases of intense lava fountaining, producing tall ash plumes and dangerous pyroclastic flows. -> See whole entry

Fueguino (Volcano)

Fueguino (Volcán Cook) volcano is the southernmost active volcano of South America's Andes, located on Isla Cook. It is 400 km away from the nearest other active volcano, Monte Burney to the NW. The volcano consists of lava domes and cinder cones. A strombolian eruption was observed in 1820. -> See whole entry

Fuerteventura (Volcano)

Pleistocene and Holocene cinder cones and lava flows cover large portions of elongated Fuerteventura Island at the SE end of the Canary Islands. -> See whole entry

Fukue-jima (Volcano)

Fukue-jima volcano is a group of basaltic shield volcanoes and cinder cones on Fukue island off the western coast of Kyushu, Japan. The volcanoes are 900,000 years old and last erupted about 2-3000 years ago. They are considered to be active. The On-dake cinder cone forms the highest point of the volcanic field, which forms peninsulas at the eastern and SE tips of Fukue Island as well as several smaller islands SE of Fukue.

Fukujin (Volcano)

Fukujin volcano is one of the largest seamounts of the Marianas arc in Japan's Volcano Island chain. It sometimes has risen to above surface during eruptions creating temporary new islands. Water discoloration and floating pumice above the submarine volcano have been observed frequently.

Fukutoku-Okanoba (Volcano)

Fukutoku-Okanoba is a submarine volcano 5 km NE of the small pyramidal island Minami-iwo-jima in the Japanese Volcano Island chain. Eruptions and submarine hydrothermal activity often cause water discoloration in the area, and during eruptions, the volcano has built several temporary new islands. The first observation of a new island was in 1904-05 when it formed Shin-Iwo-jima ("New Sulfur Island"). Small new islands were also formed during the eruptions in 1914 and 1986. -> See whole entry

Furnas (Volcano)

Furnas volcano lies at the eastern end of Sao Miguel Island, immediately west of the older Nordeste shield volcano and its Povoaçao caldera. -> See whole entry

Fuss Peak (Volcano)

Fuss Peak is an isolated andesitic stratovolcano on southern Paramushir Island, Kuril Islands. The volcano rises almost 3000 m from the sea floor and forms a peninsula of Paramushir connected to it by a low isthmus. The volcano contains a 700 m wide and 300 m deep crater, with a deep gully cutting its NW rim and forming a canyon down to the coast. Fresh-looking lava flows are on the E and SE flanks. The last confirmed historic activity was in 1854.

Gagak (Volcano)

Gagak belongs to the Perbakti-Gagak or Kiaraberes-Gagak volcanic complex near Bogor, immediately SW of Salak volcano. The 3 volcanoes of the group are, from S to N, Gunung Endut (1474 m), Gunung Perbakti (1699 m), and Gunung Gagak (1511 m). Gunung Gagak lies to the NW of the group and is known for its large pumice and obsidian deposit at the summit, and obsidian lava flows extending to the north and NE.

Galeras (Volcano)

Galeras is one of Colombia's most active volcanoes. In an eruption in 1993, it killed a group of scientists and tourists who had been inside its crater when it erupted. -> See whole entry

Gallego (Volcano)

Gallego volcano is a group of eroded cones covering a large part of the NW end of Guadalcanal Island. Mount Esperance, a small but well-preserved andesitic cone is said by to have been active less than 2000 years ago, according to local traditions. It is possible, however that these refer to eruptions of the younger Savo volcano.

Galunggung (Volcano)

Galunggung volcano about 100 km SE of West Java's capital Bandung had its last major eruption in 1982, when ash plumes reached 20 km. -> See whole entry

Gamalama (Volcano)

Gamalama (Peak of Ternate) is a near-perfect conical stratovolcano that forms the entire island of Ternate off the western coast of Halmahera. It is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. -> See whole entry

Gamkonora volcano (Volcano)

Garbuna (Volcano)

Garbuna volcano at the southern end of the Willaumez Peninsula, New Britain, is part of a basaltic-to-dacitic volcano group consisting of 3 volcanic peaks, Krummel, Garbuna, and Welcker. Garbuna volcano erupted on 17 October 2005 after having been dormant for almost 1800 years. -> See whole entry

Garibaldi (Volcano)

Mt Garibaldi volcano at the head of Howe Sound, 66 km north of Vancouver in SW British Columbia is probably Canada's best-known volcano and part of the active Cascades Range. It is a young stratovolcano capped by a complex of lava domes. Its most recent eruptions occurred at the Opal Cone on the SE flank ca. 8000 years ago and produced the Ring Creek lava flow. -> See whole entry

Garibaldi Lake (Volcano)

Garibaldi Lake is a group of 9 small small andesitic stratovolcanoes and basaltic-andesite cones located 70 km north of Vancouverin SW British Columbia, Canada. The most recent eruptions occurred from Clinker Peak probably around 10,000 years ago. -> See whole entry

Garove (Volcano)

Garove volcano forms the 12 km long and low Garove Island, the largest of the Witu Island group located 40 miles (65 km) north of New Britain Island in the Bismarck Sea. Garove volcano has a 5 km wide flooded caldera open to the sea through a narrow breach on the southern side, where it forms Johann Albrecht harbour. The island has fumarole fields and thermal areas. -> See whole entry

Garua (Volcano)

Garua (Talasea) volcano (or Garua Harbour volcano) is a volcanic field on the Willaumez Peninsula in New Britain, Papua New Guinea. It has abundant geothermal activity with hot springs, large boiling pools, fumaroles, and small geysers, in particular along the shores of Garua Harbour and on the north shore near Pangalu village. Mudpots occur near Talasea on the south shore. -> See whole entry

Gaua (Volcano)

Gaua is one of the most remote and most active volcanoes of the Vanuatu archipel. Its most recent eruption started in Sep 2009 from Mt Garet inside the caldera lake and is ongoing (as of April 2010). -> See whole entry

Gede-Pangrango (Volcano)

geology ()

Geology is the science and study of the solid matter that constitutes the Earth. -> See whole entry

Geureudong volcano (Volcano)

Ghegam (Volcano)

The Ghegam Ridge, located in west-central Armenia between the capital city of Yerevan and Lake Sevan, contains a broad concentration of lava domes and pyroclastic cones of Pleistocene-to-Holocene age. -> See whole entry

Gilbanta (Volcano)

Gilbanta (also spelled Gilibanta) is a submarine volcano off the western coast of Komodo Island. There are vague reports suggesting activity in 1957. -> See whole entry

Giluwe (Volcano)

Mt Giluwe is the highest volcano in Pacific Oceania and considered one of "the 7 volcanic summits" (not Mauna Kea on Hawaii, as many think: Giluwe is 162 m higher). It is an ancient extinct shield volcano with 2 prominent 400 m high cones forming its summit, called the main peak and the slightly lower eastern peak (4300 m). Occasionally, the summit receives snow fall. -> See whole entry

Girekol (Volcano)

A huge volcano north of Van lake with a great eruption crater towards south-east. -> See whole entry

Glacier Peak (Volcano)

Glacier Peak is a stratovolcano in northern Washington and the most remote of the Cascade volcanoes. Its name comes from the 11 glaciers on its flanks. Although it reaches more than 10,000 feet elevation, the volcanic edifice is only 500-1000 m high, because the volcano's base is located on a high ridge. -> See whole entry

Goat Rocks (Volcano)

Goat Rocks is the center a deeply eroded, glaciated volcanic center of a volcanic field 30 km (18 miles) north of Mount Adams, Washnington, USA. -> See whole entry

Golden Trout Creek (Volcano)

The Golden Trout Creek volcanic field consists of a group of cinder cones and lava flows in the Toowa Toowa valley of the Sierra Nevada, California, about 25 km south of Mount Whitney. Toowa valley is a broad and open valley about 8600 feet high, dotted with cones rising 100-200 m above the valley floor. 4 volcanic centers have been identified at the Golden Trout Creek volcanic field. -> See whole entry

Golets-Tornyi (Volcano)

Golets and Tornyi are 2 pyroclastic cones located SW of Medvezhii on Iturup Island, Kurile Islands, Russia. They occupy one of the narrowest parts of the island. The age of their last eruptions is unknown, but probably about 10,000 years ago. A lava flow from the andesitic-dacitic Tornyi cone (417 m) is seen inside a glacial depression. Golets cone itself was constructed above the eroded remnants of the extinct Parusnaya Mountain volcano. Lava flows from Golets reached the coast. (Source: GVP / Smithsonian volcano information)

Göllü Dağ (Volcano)

Göllü Dağ, a 2143-m-high rhyolitic-to-rhyodacitic lava dome complex in central Anatolia, lies between the Hasan Dağ and Acigöl-Nevsehir volcanic complexes. -> See whole entry

Golovnin (Volcano)

Golovnin volcano (Tomari-yama in Japanese) is the southernmost volcano in the Kurile Islands and forms the southern end of Kunashir Island, located only 33 km across the Nemuro Strait from Hokkaido Island in Japan. It has a 4x5 km wide caldera with an 1x2.5 km wide lake, active solfataric areas at the northern lake shore and several explosion craters, one of which contains a hot crater lake with reported temperatures ranging between 36-100 degrees C. The lake drains through a narrow gap in the western caldera wall. It is part of a protected reserve and swimming in the lake is prohibited. The only known historical eruption of Golovnin volcano consisted in a minor explosion in 1848. -> See whole entry

Goodenough (Volcano)

Goodenough (Nidula) Island is a roughly circular volcanic island with 26 km diameter and the westernmost of the D'Entrecasteaux Islands off the NE end of New Guinea. Goodenough volcano contains several young basaltic-andesite and andesitic eruptive centers which may only be a few hundred years old. At present, there are thermal areas and hot springs in several areas, including 1.5 km north-west of Nou Nou, south-west of Wakala Hill, on the coast east of Bolu Bolu, and 3 km north of Bolu Bolu. Goodenough Island with its very steep cliffs might be one of the steepest islands in the world. -> See whole entry

Gorely (Volcano)

Gorely volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in southern Kamchatka and located 75 km SW of Petropavlovsk. It is a complex of several overlapping stratovolcanoes with many summit and flank craters. Activity in historic times were mainly small to medium-sized ash and steam eruptions. -> See whole entry

Goriaschaia Sopka (Volcano)

Goriaschaia Sopka (also spelled Goriaschaya Sopka) is a frequently active volcano on SW Simushir Island, Kurile Islands. Its active vent is an andesitic lava dome volcano within a large horseshoe-shaped crater cutting the NW flank of what is left of the older Igla Mountain volcano (a somma). Igla Mountain is very close to Milne volcano. The Sopka dome is probably only about 150 years old. It has erupted many young lava flows with prominent marginal levees. Some of them reached the sea where they created an irregular shoreline. Observed historical activity were mainly mild to moderate ash explosions and strombolian.

Graciosa (Volcano)

The SE end of Graciosa, the northernmost of the central Azorean islands, contains a small 0.9 x 1.6 km caldera with active fumaroles. -> See whole entry

Gran Canaria (Volcano)

The largely Miocene-to-Pliocene island of Gran Canaria in the middle of the Canary archipelago has been strongly eroded into steep-walled radial gorges called barrancos. -> See whole entry

Gran Cratere (Place)

Gran Cratere is the main crater of Vulcano volcano (Eolian Islands, Italy).

Granada (Volcano)

Granada volcano is a system of N-S trending fissure vents, cinder cones and craters located in western Nicaragua between the city of Granada (the oldest city founded by Europeans on the American continent) on the northwestern shore of Lake Nicaragua and the northern flanks of Mombacho volcano. The earliest eruptions were dated to about 12,000 years ago and the latest activity could be as recent as 2000 years. A prominent feature is the La Joya explosions craters SW of Granada town. Current activity is limited to hot springs and areas of hot ground at the western shore of Laguna Apoyo, but future eruptions are possible and pose a significant hazard to Granada town. -> See whole entry

granite (Volcanology)

Granite is the most well-known and one of the most common intrusive magmatic (plutonic) rock type. It is formed when an intrusion of viscous magma with high silica content (68-75 wt %) remains under the surface of the earth, where it cools and crystallizes slowly inside the crust. -> See whole entry

Grímsnes volcano (Volcano)

Grímsvötn volcano (Volcano)

Grotta del Gelo (Place)

Literally, the "Ice Cave" - the Grotta del Gelo is the most famous and one of the most remote lava caves on Etna volcano. It is permanently filled with a small glacier - the southernmost glacier in Europe!

Grozny (Volcano)

Grozny volcano (Etorofu Yake-yama in Japanese) in central Iturup Island, Kuriles is one of the most frequently active volcanoes of the volcanic island chain. It is a complex of 2 volcanoes: Ivan Grozny volcano and Tebenkov (also known as Odamoi-san) volcano. Ivan Grozny volcano has a 3-3.5 km diameter caldera open to the south and includes the andesitic Grozny lava dome, whose name is also used for the whole complex. All known historic eruptions took place from Ivan Grozny volcano. -> See whole entry

Guadaloupe (Volcano)

Guadalupe volcano is a mostly submerged volcano that forms the island of the same name 250 km west off the coast of Baja California. The volcano was built on the old axis of an ancient spreading center and consists of 2 overlapping shields, the southern of which is the older. The younger northern volcano could still be active and has probably erupted during the Holocene. -> See whole entry

Guagua Pichincha (Volcano)

Guagua Pichincha is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. The stratovolcano is part of a complex that rises immediately west of the capital Quito, at only 8 km distance from the city center. 3 major explosive eruptions have occurred at Guagua Pichincha in the past 2000 years, the most recent one in 1660. An event of similar size today is a major threat to the ca. 2 million city of Quito. The volcano and the older extinct Rucu Pichincha stratovolcano form a broad volcanic massif 23 km in diameter. Historical activity of the volcano has included large explosive eruptions some of which produced sub-plinian and plinian eruption columns, lava domes. Guagua Pichincha volcano's eruptions frequently produce dangerous pyroclastic flows. Following a 100 year long interval of being dormant, Guagua Pichincha volcano has entered a new phase of low seismic, phreatic and magmatic activity in 1981. -> See whole entry

Guallatiri (Volcano)

Volcán Guallatiri in northern Chile just west of the Bolivian border is one of northern Chile's most active volcanoes. It is a symmetrical ice-covered stratovolcano at the SW end of the Nevados de Quimsachata volcano group. Its summit contains a dacitic lava dome complex with the active vent located at its southern side. There are thick lava flows on the lower northern and western flanks of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic volcano. In historic times, Guallatiri's activity consisted in small explosive ash eruptions. There is intense fumarolic activity with "jet-like" noises, and numerous solfataras are located more than 300 m down the west flank. Source: Smithsonian / GVP Guallatiri volcano information

Guayaques (Volcano)

Guayaques volcano is a group of lava domes in northern Chile on the border with Bolivia. The group of domes forms a 10 km long N-S trending chain and has fed thick, viscous lava flows extending up to about 3 km from the vents. The youngest domes appear to be north of the summit crater of the dome complex and are less than 10,000 years old. -> See whole entry

Guazapa (Volcano)

Guazapa volcano an eroded basaltic stratovolcano 23 km NE of San Salvador city. It is not known whether the Pleistocene volcano is still active. It shows signs of intense erosion that have cut deep valleys into its flanks, suggestin a very long dormany period, and there is no crater morphology left. However, Cerro Macanze is a scoria cone at the SE base of the volcano, which is considered by some to be only a few thousands of years old.

Guntur (Volcano)

Gunung Api Wetar (Volcano)

Gunung Api Wetar (Gunung Api = Fire Mountain) volcano forms a small round island in an isolated location in the Banda Sea, Indonesia. The volcano is a massive stratovolcano, rising 5 km from the sea floor; the island is just the uppermost 282 m above water. It is built from lava flows and has a central crater with an intra-crater cone. The slopes of Gunung Api show evidence of 3 large landslides, the largest of which forms en embayment on the NE coast. The youngest lava flow descended the SW flank to the coast. Explosive eruptions in 1512 and 1699 are the only known historical activity of Gunung Api Wetar.

Gunung Semuning (Ranau caldera) (Volcano)

Ranau is an 8 x 13 km caldera partially filled by the crescent-shaped Lake Ranau. -> See whole entry

Hachijo-jima (Volcano)

Hachijo-jima volcano (八丈島, Hachijōjima) forms an 14 km NW-SE elongated island in the central Izu Islands about 300 km south of Tokyo. It consists of 2 small overlapping, mainly basaltic stratovolcanoes (Higashi-yama and Nishi-yama). The last eruptions were from the younger Nishi-yama volcano in the 15th century and occurred from the summit and submarine vents. -> See whole entry

Hachimantai (Volcano)

Hachimantai (Hatimantai) volcano is a complex stratovolcano in northern Honshu, Japan, located at the front of the northern Honshu volcanic arc. It belongs to the Towada-Hachimantai National Park. Hachimantai was originally the name of a small peak (1614m) in the northern Sengan area, but is now commonly used as the name for the entire volcanic group, which contains several cones and craters in a widely scattered area. Its summit is a vast undulated plateau containing circular craters near Komono-more and Mokko-dake in the center. There are no historical eruptions from the volcanic group and the last activity is probably more than 7000 years ago, but there are still major major gas emissions around the Fukenoyu cone and active solfataras are found on the western and southern flanks. -> See whole entry

Hainan Dao (Volcano)

Hainan Dao volcano is a group of 58 cinder cones on the northern part of Hainan Island in SE China. Small fissure eruptions were recorded in 1883 from Lingao cone and in 1933 from Nansheling ridge. -> See whole entry

Hakkoda (Volcano)

Hakkoda volcano is a group of 14 stratovolcanoes and lava domes south of Mutsu Bay at the northern end of Honshu Island, Japan. There are fumaroles and hot springs at Ido-dake and several other locations. 3 minor phreatic eruptions were documented from Jigoku-numa on the SW flank of Odake volcano from the 13th-17th centuries. -> See whole entry

Hakone (Volcano)

Hakone volcano is located 80 km SW of Tokyo. It is a massive stratovolcano truncated by 2 overlapping calderas, the largest being 11 x 10 km wide. It contains several younger vents, mostly lava domes, on a SW-NE trend cutting through the center of the caldera. The Kami-yama stratovolcano, the youngest of these, forms the high point of the volcano. The calderas are breached to the east by the Haya-kawa canyon. The scenic Lake Ashi (Ashinoko) was created by a phreatic eruption 3000 yeas ago, which followed the collapse of the NW flank of the largest and youngest of the lava domes and dammed the Haya-kawa valley. The last activity of Hakone volcano was ca. 800 years ago and consisted in phreatic explosions. Lake Ashi and other major thermal areas in the caldera are a tourist destination SW of Tokyo. -> See whole entry

Haku-san (Volcano)

Haku-san volcano ((白山), or Mount Haku (Hakusan) is one of the 3 holy mountains in Japan (along with Fuji and On-take). It is a stratovolcano in central Honshu 260 km NW of Tokyo. the volcano last erupted in 1659, but many eruptions have been recorded during the 1000 years prior to this. Haku-san National Park is the most scenic part of the Hokuriku area known for its heavy snowfall. Most of the park is a protected wilderness area. -> See whole entry

Hanish (Volcano)

Hanish volcano forms a group of islands in the Red Sea between Eritrea and Yemen. These include the 20 km long Great Hanish, Little Hanish, and many other small islands and submarine shoals. The volcano contains a number of volcanic vents aligned NE-SW and consists of lava shields and cinder cones. Eruptions on the Hanish islands often start with phreatic explosions that open new vents, then enter phases with lava fountains building up cinder cones, and then continue and end with effusion of fluid lava flows. The islands of the Greater Hanish archipelago in the Red Sea were disputed with fighting between Eritrea and Yemen in December 1995. In 1998 the Permanent Court of Arbitration determined that the most of archipelago belonged to Yemen.

Hargy (Volcano)

Hargy volcano (also referred to as Eve, Galloseulo, Ibi, Richthofen, Gallosculo) is a little-known volcano in eastern New Britain, but it has one of New Britains's largest calderas, which measures 12 x 10 km. There are no known historic eruptions and the last activity has been dated to ca. 1000 years ago, but weak fumarolic activity was observed from the SE side of the western summit crater during an overflight in early September 1990. Numerous small eruptions have taken place from a vent inside the caldera (at the Galloseulo lava cone) over the past 7000 years. -> See whole entry

Harra es-Sawâd (Volcano)

Harra es-Sawâd volcano (also spelled Shuqra) is a volcanic field in southern Yemen. It contains about 100 cones that have produced young lava flows. There are reports about an eruption in 1253 AD, but it's possible that there were more recent eruptions that went unnoticed. -> See whole entry

Harra of Arhab (Volcano)

Harra of Arhab volcano is an active volcanic field ca 30 km north of the Yemen's capital Sana'a. The volcanic field of stratovolcanoes, cinder cones and lava flows covers about 1500 sq km, and has last erupted between 400 and 600 AD when it produced a cinder cone and a 9 km long lava flow. The only other known historic eruption occurred around 200 AD. -> See whole entry

Harra of Bal Haf (Volcano)

Harra of Bal Haf volcano is a small volcanic field about 100 km SW of the city of Al Mukalla in southern Yemen along the along the coast of the Gulf of Aden. At least one basaltic lava flow is probably of historical age. -> See whole entry

Harras of Dhamar (Volcano)

Harras of Dhamar volcano has its name from a large lava field around the town Dhamar 100 km SE of Yemen's capital Sana'a. The lava flows belong to a large volcanic field, stretches 80 km to the east and consists of young stratovolcanoes, cones, and basaltic lava flows overlying older rhyolite flows. The only eruption on the Arabian peninsula occurrd from Harras of Dhamar volcano is the probable source of the only known eruption on the Arabian peninsula in the 20th century, in 1937.

Harrat 'Uwayrid (Volcano)

Harrat 'Uwayrid volcano is one of several basaltic volcanic fields in western Arabia, located 120 km east of the Red Sea. The field contains vast lava flows, scoria cones and tuff cones in a NW-SE aligned 125 km long area. To the NW, it joins with the Harrat ar Rahat volcanic field. An eruption has probably occurred at around 640 AD from either the Hala-'l-Bedr or Hala-'l-'Ischia cones, or both. Bedouin legends remember that Hala-'l-Bedr erupted fire and stones, killing herdsmen and their cattle and sheep.

Harrat al Birk (Volcano)

Harrat al Birk volcano (also known as Harrat Hayil or Hubhub al Sheikh) is the only young volcanic field of Western Arabia located directly at the Red Sea coast, west of the town of Abha, and between the Tihamat ash Sham and Tihamat 'Asir coastal plains. It consists of 1800 sq km of basaltic cinder cones and lava flows. Freshly eroded ash deposits are found around a vent at Jabal Ba'a, east of the main field, and suggest that an eruption might have occurred less than 100 years ago here.

Harrat ar Rahah (Volcano)

Harrat ar Rahah is the northernmost of a series of young basaltic volcanic fields in western Saudi Arabia arranged parallel to the Red Sea. It is located south of the Plain of El-'Hisma, south of the town of Tabuk. The field contains mainly large olivine-bearing basalt lava flows that were erupted from fissures. The age of the last eruptions is unknown, but probably less than 10,000 years. -> See whole entry

Harrat Ithnayn (Volcano)

Harrat Ithnayn volcano is volcanic field of 4000 sq km size in western Saudi Arabia north of the Harrat Khaybar volcanic field. It consists of various shield volcanoes and scoria cones, and contains large basalt flows with lava caves. The youngest lava flows from Harrat Ithnayn are less than 4500 years old. -> See whole entry

Harrat Khaybar (Volcano)

Harrat Khaybar volcano one of Arabia's largest volcanic fields and covers more than 14,000 square km 65 km NE of Al Madinah (Medina) in western Saudi Arabia. It contains a 100 km long N-S oriented line of volcanic vents including scoria cones, lava domes, maars, basalt lava flows, and the only stratovolcano in the Harrats of western Arabia, Jabal Qidr stratovolcano. There are at least 8 lava flows that have been dated to historic times (less than 1500 years old). These include the prominent 55-km-long Habir lava flow and flows from Jabal Oidr. However, only one eruption is recorded in historic memory from early Mohammedan times during the 7th century AD. -> See whole entry

Harrat Kishb (Volcano)

Harrat Kishb volcano is a 5900 sq km volcanic field in central Saudi Arabia, east of the other N-S-trending chain of Harrats. The volcanic field contains basaltic scoria cones, tuff rings, maars, lava domes and lava flows. -> See whole entry

Harrat Lunayyir (Volcano)

Harrat Lunayyir volcano is a volcanic field in western Saudi Arabia east of the Red Sea port of Umm Lajj. The basaltic field contains about 50 cinder cones and lava flows aligned N-S. Two of the lava flows have reached the Red Sea. An eruption has probably occurred in the 10th century AD or earlier.

Harrat Rahat (Volcano)

Harrat Rahat is Saudi Arabia's largest lava field and comprises an area of 20,000 sq km, extending for 300 km at an average width of 60 km south of the holy city of Al Madinah (Medina). Historic eruptions have occurred near Medina, notably one in 1256 AD. -> See whole entry

Haruna (Volcano)

Haruna volcano a stratovolcano located in central Honshu, 110 km NW of Tokyo. The volcano contains a small summit caldera with a symmetrical post-caldera cone (Haruna Fuji) and Lake Haruna in the western side of the caldera. The most recent eruptions, dated to the 6th century AD, were 2 large explosive eruptions from the Futatsu-dake lava dome in the eastern part of the caldera. -> See whole entry

Hasan Dagi (Volcano)

The Hasan Dagi is a huge stratovolcano on which caldera collapses took place in ca. 7500-7600 years ago. -> See whole entry

Haut Dong Nai (Volcano)

Haut Dong Nai volcano (also known as the Djiring Plateau) is a field of both older and relatively young cones and lava flows in south-central Vietnam NE of Ho Chi Minh city (Saigon). The field covers 70 x 150 km and some of its vents could have erupted less than 10,000 years ago.

hauyn (Minerals: hauyn crystals)

Hauyn is a blue mineral, found f.e. in the pumice of the Laacher See eruption in Germany -> See whole entry

Havre Seamount (Volcano)

Havre Seamount is an active submarine volcano in the Kermandec Island arc about 75 SW of Curtis island. Little is known about the volcano. Its first document eruption probably started around 18 July 2012 and was discovered in August 2012 after a large pumice raft was discovered in the Kermandec islands, and scientist analyzed satellite recent pictures.

Hawaiian eruption (Volcanology)

During a Hawaiian eruption, very fluid, basaltic lava is erupted from the vent as lava fountains and forms lava flows. The fountains are driven by the expanding gasses that were contained in the magma and leave the vent as a jet. Such eruptions are common for hot-spot volcanoes such as Kilauea on Hawai'i. -> See whole entry

Hayes (Volcano)

Hayes volcano, named after Hayes Glacier, is a stratovolcano which was only discovered in 1975. It is located in a remote, mostly uninhabited and inaccessible part in the northern Tordrillo Mountains of the north-central Cook Inlet region about 135 km NW of Anchorage. The nearest settlements are the small towns of Tyonek and Skwentna in the lower Susitna valley. Hayes is the easternmost of the volcanoes of the Aleutian Arc. the volcano has no distinctive summit and 90% of its surface are covered by glaciers and ice, totalling about 60 cu km in volume, part of which belong to large glaciers from the nearby (non-volcanic) Mount Gerdine. -> See whole entry

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