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Bagana volcano on Bougainville Island is one of the world's most active volcanoes. It has erupted frequently since its discovery in 1842. It is located on a remote part of central Bougainville Island in the Northern Solomon Province of Papua New Guinea.
Bagana volcano is a massive, symmetrical, roughly 1750-m-high cone built largely by rapid accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The present-day cone might only be 300 years old.
Major eruptions occurred in 1950, 1952, and 1966. Bagana has been in near- continuous activity since 1972, creating slow-moving lava flows, and occasionally ash explosions that sometimes produce pyroclastic flows.
The volcano has been in near-continuous activity since the earliest records from the 18th century.
|Volcano type||lava cone (stratovolcano) restless|
|Location||Papúa Nueva Guinea|
|Summit elevation||1750 m / 5,741 ft|
|Bagana volcano eruptions||2012, 1972-2011, 1970-71, 1968, 1966-67, 1964-65, 1962-63, 1961, 1959(?)-60, 1953, 1952, 1948-51, 1945-47, 1943, 1939, 1938, 1937, 1909(?), 1908, 1899, 1897, 1894-95, 1883, 1865-83, 1842|
|Typical eruption style||explosive|
Bagana volcano's cone almost lacks vegetation despite the tropical climate. It has a small lava dome on the north flank of the volcano. There are active fumaroles on the youngest lava flows and several hot springs occur at the base of the cone. Bagana's lavas are mostly augite-bearing andesites.
Its young lava flows form dramatic flow features, including prominent levees that descend the whole of the cone, and end in very well preserved tongue-shaped lobes with fronts up to 50-m-thick, which surround the volcano on all sides.
Sources of information:
- Bultitude, R.J. (1976) "Eruptive history of Bagana Volcano, Papua New Guinea, between 1882 and 1975", in: Johnson, R.W. (ed.) "Volcanism in Australasia", Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, New York, p. 317-336.
- Bultitude, R. J. (1979) "Bagana volcano : Bougainville Island geology, petrology, and summary of eruptive history between 1875 and 1975", Memoir of the Geological Survey of Papua New Guinea (v. 6), Port Moresby
- Smithsonian / GVP volcano information
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