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Ash cloud from Santiaguito volcano at dusk (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
From time to time, large gas bubbles explode at the N rim of the lava lake. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
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Steam pours from the blocky summit of a lava dome formed at Myojin-sho during a submarine eruption at the Bayonnaise Rocks volcano in 1952. This September 22 photo was taken 6 days after the dome began to breach the sea surface. Later that day the eruption became highly explosive, and the dome was destroyed. Three cycles of dome growth and destruction occurred until October 1953. Myojin-sho is located on the eastern rim of a 7-9 km wide submarine caldera. (Photo: Helen Foster / USGS)
Bayonnaise Rocks volcano (ベヨネース列岩 Beyonēsu-retsugan) is an active submarine volcano in the Izu Islands ca. 400 km south of Tokyo. The volcano has a large 8-9 km wide caldera whose highest point forms a few rocks rising just above sea level. The volcano is known for its submarine eruptions which sometimes produce temporary islands.
Most of its frequent eruptions have occurred at Myojin-sho, a large young lava dome on the NE rim of the caldera. In 1952, an explosive eruption at Myojin-sho destroyed a Japanese research vessel, killing all 31 people on board.
There is only sparse vegetation on the Bayonnaise Rocks, but the islands are an important resting place for migratory birds. Located in the Kuroshio Current, the waters around have abundant sea life and are popular with sports fishermen.
|Volcano type||submarine volcano normal or dormant|
|Summit elevation||11 m / 36 ft|
|Bayonnaise Rocks volcano eruptions||1988(?), 1987(?), 1986(?), 1983(?), 1980(?), 1979(?), 1971(?), 1970, 1960, 1959, 1958, 1957, 1955, 1954, 1952-53, 1946, 1934, 1915, 1906, 1896|
|Typical eruption style||effusive (lava dome)|
The formation of the Bayonnaise Rocks caldera was followed by construction of a large (2.6 km3) lava dome and/or lava complex of lava flows on the caldera floor, which was originally at a depth of 1000-1100 m.
Bayonnaise Rocks has deposits from submarine pyroclastic flows which are the result of the growth of the dacitic lava dome. These deposits mantle the conical dome and extend into the NE part of the caldera and down its outer slopes.
(Source: Smithsonian / GVP volcano information)
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