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Topics: Volcanology glossary | Earthquake glossary

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Hachijo-jima (Volcano)

Hachijo-jima volcano (八丈島, Hachijōjima) forms an 14 km NW-SE elongated island in the central Izu Islands about 300 km south of Tokyo. It consists of 2 small overlapping, mainly basaltic stratovolcanoes (Higashi-yama and Nishi-yama). The last eruptions were from the younger Nishi-yama volcano in the 15th century and occurred from the summit and submarine vents. -> See whole entry

Hachimantai (Volcano)

Hachimantai (Hatimantai) volcano is a complex stratovolcano in northern Honshu, Japan, located at the front of the northern Honshu volcanic arc. It belongs to the Towada-Hachimantai National Park. Hachimantai was originally the name of a small peak (1614m) in the northern Sengan area, but is now commonly used as the name for the entire volcanic group, which contains several cones and craters in a widely scattered area. Its summit is a vast undulated plateau containing circular craters near Komono-more and Mokko-dake in the center. There are no historical eruptions from the volcanic group and the last activity is probably more than 7000 years ago, but there are still major major gas emissions around the Fukenoyu cone and active solfataras are found on the western and southern flanks. -> See whole entry

Hainan Dao (Volcano)

Hainan Dao volcano is a group of 58 cinder cones on the northern part of Hainan Island in SE China. Small fissure eruptions were recorded in 1883 from Lingao cone and in 1933 from Nansheling ridge. -> See whole entry

Hakkoda (Volcano)

Hakkoda volcano is a group of 14 stratovolcanoes and lava domes south of Mutsu Bay at the northern end of Honshu Island, Japan. There are fumaroles and hot springs at Ido-dake and several other locations. 3 minor phreatic eruptions were documented from Jigoku-numa on the SW flank of Odake volcano from the 13th-17th centuries. -> See whole entry

Hakone (Volcano)

Hakone volcano is located 80 km SW of Tokyo. It is a massive stratovolcano truncated by 2 overlapping calderas, the largest being 11 x 10 km wide. It contains several younger vents, mostly lava domes, on a SW-NE trend cutting through the center of the caldera. The Kami-yama stratovolcano, the youngest of these, forms the high point of the volcano. The calderas are breached to the east by the Haya-kawa canyon. The scenic Lake Ashi (Ashinoko) was created by a phreatic eruption 3000 yeas ago, which followed the collapse of the NW flank of the largest and youngest of the lava domes and dammed the Haya-kawa valley. The last activity of Hakone volcano was ca. 800 years ago and consisted in phreatic explosions. Lake Ashi and other major thermal areas in the caldera are a tourist destination SW of Tokyo. -> See whole entry

Haku-san (Volcano)

Haku-san volcano ((白山), or Mount Haku (Hakusan) is one of the 3 holy mountains in Japan (along with Fuji and On-take). It is a stratovolcano in central Honshu 260 km NW of Tokyo. the volcano last erupted in 1659, but many eruptions have been recorded during the 1000 years prior to this. Haku-san National Park is the most scenic part of the Hokuriku area known for its heavy snowfall. Most of the park is a protected wilderness area. -> See whole entry

Hanish (Volcano)

Hanish volcano forms a group of islands in the Red Sea between Eritrea and Yemen. These include the 20 km long Great Hanish, Little Hanish, and many other small islands and submarine shoals. The volcano contains a number of volcanic vents aligned NE-SW and consists of lava shields and cinder cones. Eruptions on the Hanish islands often start with phreatic explosions that open new vents, then enter phases with lava fountains building up cinder cones, and then continue and end with effusion of fluid lava flows. The islands of the Greater Hanish archipelago in the Red Sea were disputed with fighting between Eritrea and Yemen in December 1995. In 1998 the Permanent Court of Arbitration determined that the most of archipelago belonged to Yemen.

Hargy (Volcano)

Hargy volcano (also referred to as Eve, Galloseulo, Ibi, Richthofen, Gallosculo) is a little-known volcano in eastern New Britain, but it has one of New Britains's largest calderas, which measures 12 x 10 km. There are no known historic eruptions and the last activity has been dated to ca. 1000 years ago, but weak fumarolic activity was observed from the SE side of the western summit crater during an overflight in early September 1990. Numerous small eruptions have taken place from a vent inside the caldera (at the Galloseulo lava cone) over the past 7000 years. -> See whole entry

Harra es-Sawâd (Volcano)

Harra es-Sawâd volcano (also spelled Shuqra) is a volcanic field in southern Yemen. It contains about 100 cones that have produced young lava flows. There are reports about an eruption in 1253 AD, but it's possible that there were more recent eruptions that went unnoticed. -> See whole entry

Harra of Arhab (Volcano)

Harra of Arhab volcano is an active volcanic field ca 30 km north of the Yemen's capital Sana'a. The volcanic field of stratovolcanoes, cinder cones and lava flows covers about 1500 sq km, and has last erupted between 400 and 600 AD when it produced a cinder cone and a 9 km long lava flow. The only other known historic eruption occurred around 200 AD. -> See whole entry

Harra of Bal Haf (Volcano)

Harra of Bal Haf volcano is a small volcanic field about 100 km SW of the city of Al Mukalla in southern Yemen along the along the coast of the Gulf of Aden. At least one basaltic lava flow is probably of historical age. -> See whole entry

Harras of Dhamar (Volcano)

Harras of Dhamar volcano has its name from a large lava field around the town Dhamar 100 km SE of Yemen's capital Sana'a. The lava flows belong to a large volcanic field, stretches 80 km to the east and consists of young stratovolcanoes, cones, and basaltic lava flows overlying older rhyolite flows. The only eruption on the Arabian peninsula occurrd from Harras of Dhamar volcano is the probable source of the only known eruption on the Arabian peninsula in the 20th century, in 1937.

Harrat 'Uwayrid (Volcano)

Harrat 'Uwayrid volcano is one of several basaltic volcanic fields in western Arabia, located 120 km east of the Red Sea. The field contains vast lava flows, scoria cones and tuff cones in a NW-SE aligned 125 km long area. To the NW, it joins with the Harrat ar Rahat volcanic field. An eruption has probably occurred at around 640 AD from either the Hala-'l-Bedr or Hala-'l-'Ischia cones, or both. Bedouin legends remember that Hala-'l-Bedr erupted fire and stones, killing herdsmen and their cattle and sheep.

Harrat al Birk (Volcano)

Harrat al Birk volcano (also known as Harrat Hayil or Hubhub al Sheikh) is the only young volcanic field of Western Arabia located directly at the Red Sea coast, west of the town of Abha, and between the Tihamat ash Sham and Tihamat 'Asir coastal plains. It consists of 1800 sq km of basaltic cinder cones and lava flows. Freshly eroded ash deposits are found around a vent at Jabal Ba'a, east of the main field, and suggest that an eruption might have occurred less than 100 years ago here.

Harrat ar Rahah (Volcano)

Harrat ar Rahah is the northernmost of a series of young basaltic volcanic fields in western Saudi Arabia arranged parallel to the Red Sea. It is located south of the Plain of El-'Hisma, south of the town of Tabuk. The field contains mainly large olivine-bearing basalt lava flows that were erupted from fissures. The age of the last eruptions is unknown, but probably less than 10,000 years. -> See whole entry

Harrat Ithnayn (Volcano)

Harrat Ithnayn volcano is volcanic field of 4000 sq km size in western Saudi Arabia north of the Harrat Khaybar volcanic field. It consists of various shield volcanoes and scoria cones, and contains large basalt flows with lava caves. The youngest lava flows from Harrat Ithnayn are less than 4500 years old. -> See whole entry

Harrat Khaybar (Volcano)

Harrat Khaybar volcano one of Arabia's largest volcanic fields and covers more than 14,000 square km 65 km NE of Al Madinah (Medina) in western Saudi Arabia. It contains a 100 km long N-S oriented line of volcanic vents including scoria cones, lava domes, maars, basalt lava flows, and the only stratovolcano in the Harrats of western Arabia, Jabal Qidr stratovolcano. There are at least 8 lava flows that have been dated to historic times (less than 1500 years old). These include the prominent 55-km-long Habir lava flow and flows from Jabal Oidr. However, only one eruption is recorded in historic memory from early Mohammedan times during the 7th century AD. -> See whole entry

Harrat Kishb (Volcano)

Harrat Kishb volcano is a 5900 sq km volcanic field in central Saudi Arabia, east of the other N-S-trending chain of Harrats. The volcanic field contains basaltic scoria cones, tuff rings, maars, lava domes and lava flows. -> See whole entry

Harrat Lunayyir (Volcano)

Harrat Lunayyir volcano is a volcanic field in western Saudi Arabia east of the Red Sea port of Umm Lajj. The basaltic field contains about 50 cinder cones and lava flows aligned N-S. Two of the lava flows have reached the Red Sea. An eruption has probably occurred in the 10th century AD or earlier.

Harrat Rahat (Volcano)

Harrat Rahat is Saudi Arabia's largest lava field and comprises an area of 20,000 sq km, extending for 300 km at an average width of 60 km south of the holy city of Al Madinah (Medina). Historic eruptions have occurred near Medina, notably one in 1256 AD. -> See whole entry

Haruna (Volcano)

Haruna volcano a stratovolcano located in central Honshu, 110 km NW of Tokyo. The volcano contains a small summit caldera with a symmetrical post-caldera cone (Haruna Fuji) and Lake Haruna in the western side of the caldera. The most recent eruptions, dated to the 6th century AD, were 2 large explosive eruptions from the Futatsu-dake lava dome in the eastern part of the caldera. -> See whole entry

Hasan Dagi (Volcano)

The Hasan Dagi is a huge stratovolcano on which caldera collapses took place in ca. 7500-7600 years ago. -> See whole entry

Haut Dong Nai (Volcano)

Haut Dong Nai volcano (also known as the Djiring Plateau) is a field of both older and relatively young cones and lava flows in south-central Vietnam NE of Ho Chi Minh city (Saigon). The field covers 70 x 150 km and some of its vents could have erupted less than 10,000 years ago.

hauyn (Minerals: hauyn crystals)

Hauyn is a blue mineral, found f.e. in the pumice of the Laacher See eruption in Germany -> See whole entry

Havre Seamount (Volcano)

Havre Seamount is an active submarine volcano in the Kermandec Island arc about 75 SW of Curtis island. Little is known about the volcano. Its first document eruption probably started around 18 July 2012 and was discovered in August 2012 after a large pumice raft was discovered in the Kermandec islands, and scientist analyzed satellite recent pictures.

Hawaiian eruption (Volcanology)

During a Hawaiian eruption, very fluid, basaltic lava is erupted from the vent as lava fountains and forms lava flows. The fountains are driven by the expanding gasses that were contained in the magma and leave the vent as a jet. Such eruptions are common for hot-spot volcanoes such as Kilauea on Hawai'i. -> See whole entry

Hayes (Volcano)

Hayes volcano, named after Hayes Glacier, is a stratovolcano which was only discovered in 1975. It is located in a remote, mostly uninhabited and inaccessible part in the northern Tordrillo Mountains of the north-central Cook Inlet region about 135 km NW of Anchorage. The nearest settlements are the small towns of Tyonek and Skwentna in the lower Susitna valley. Hayes is the easternmost of the volcanoes of the Aleutian Arc. the volcano has no distinctive summit and 90% of its surface are covered by glaciers and ice, totalling about 60 cu km in volume, part of which belong to large glaciers from the nearby (non-volcanic) Mount Gerdine. -> See whole entry

Heart Peaks (Volcano)

Heart Peaks shield volcano is located NW of Level Mountain in NW British Columbia, Canada. It is the third largest center in the northern Cordilleran volcanic province. The volcano, covering an area of 275 sq km, last erupted during the last ice ages, and it is uncertain whether there are any younger eruptions in the past 10,000 years. -> See whole entry

Hekla (Volcano)

Helatoba-Tarutung (Volcano)

Helatoba-Tarutung, located in northern Sumatra south of Lake Toba, is a group of sulfurous hot springs along a 40-km-long, NNW-SSE-trending stretch of the Renun-Toru fault zone. -> See whole entry

Hell's Half Acre (Volcano)

Hell's Half Acre is the easternmost and second largest of the young basaltic lava fields of the Snake River Plain, Idaho. It covers an area of about 400 sq km SW of Idaho Falls. The last eruptions occurred about 5200 years ago. -> See whole entry

Hengill (Volcano)

Hibok-Hibok (Volcano)

Hibok-Hibok volcano (also known as Catarman volcano) is the youngest and the only historically active volcano on Camiguin Island, which is located 9 km off the north coast of Mindanao Island, Philippines. Camiguin island itself is a 292 sq km oblate, 20 km long island composed of 4 overlapping stratovolcanoes and some flank cones. Eruptions of Hibok-Hibok volcano are often Pelean-type, i.e. dome building and the generation of nuées ardentes (= hot pyroclastic flows generated by partial dome collapse). Prior to the 1948 eruption, sulfur was mined at the crater of Hibok-Hibok. Note: A volcanic Island called Camiguin de Babuyanes is located north of Luzon Island. -> See whole entry

Hijiori (Volcano)

Hijiori volcano is a caldera about 15 km northeast of Gassan volcano in Yamagata Prefecture in northern Honshu, Japan. It formed about 12,000 years ago during an eruption that produced dacitic pyroclastic flows and tephra fall to the east until the Pacifi Ocean. A lava dome grew at the end of the eruption. There are many hot springs at and near the volcano. These are among the main attractions of the area. -> See whole entry

Hiri (Volcano)

Hiri is a small 3-km-wide forest covered island immediately north of Ternate Island and the tip of a mostly submerged stratovolcano. It forms the northernmost of a volcanic chain off the western coast of Halmahera. There are no known historic eruptions.

Hiuchi (Volcano)

Hiuchi volcano is a stratovolcano located in Niggata Prefecture, 140 km NNW of Tokyo. It is part of the Nikko National park, one of Japan's most scenic regions, known for Lake Ozenuma, a popular hiking destination in the park. The last eruption was in 1544 from the Miike lava dome at the southern end of Hiuchi's summit. -> See whole entry

Hochan Synonym of: Pechan (Volcano)

Hofsjökull (Volcano)

Honggeertu (Volcano)

Honggeertu volcano is a volcanic field consisting of about 12 cinder cones located 335 km NW of Beijing in the Nei Mongul Province. It is uncertain whether eruptions have occurred in the Holocene.

Hoodoo Mountain (Volcano)

Hoodoo Mountain is located north of the Iskut River in the Coast Mountains of northwestern British Columbia, Canada. The volcano formed under glacial ice, and a 3-4 km wide ice cap still covers the upper part above 1750 m elevation, forming 2 glaciers, the Hoodoo glacier on the northwest and Twin glacier on the northeast side. It has a circular shape with a basal diameter of 6 km and a flat top.

hornito (Volcanology)

Hornopiren (Volcano)

Hornopirén (meaning "snow oven") is a young stratovolcano in southern Chile, SSW of Yate volcano, north of the Hornopirén strait and immediately south of Lago Cabrera. The forested basaltic-andesite volcano lies on the major regional Liquiñe-Ofqui fault zone. Prominent lava flows extende beyond the SW base of the volcano and overlie the floor of a tectonic graben. An eruption in 1835 is uncertain. Hornopirén volcano is part of the Hornopirén National Park, which comprises about 3000 hectares of glacier fields and 3 lakes - El Cabro lagoon (155 hectares) and lakes Inexplorado (150 ha) and Pinto Concha (475 ha). Hornopiren National Park is home to 25 species of mammals, 123 birds, 9 amphibians and 1 reptilian.

Hualalai (Volcano)

Hualalai, the third of the active shield volcano volcanoes on Hawai'i, is located to the northwest and wet of its giant neighbors Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea. Hualalai volcano last erupted during 1800-1801, when it produced lava flows from 5 fissure vents that reached the sea and buried Hawaiian villages. Hualalai began erupting about 800,000 years ago and breached the sea surface about 300,000 years ago. The volcano has 3 rift zones, the most prominent is the northwest rift, which is about 40 km long and continues into the sea to a depth of 3000 m. -> See whole entry

Huambo (Volcano)

Huambo is a monogenetic volcanic field in southern Peru, SSE of the Andahua-Orcocampo volcanic field and west of Sabancaya volcano. The Huambo field is divided into 2 segments. The southern part contains several cinder cones and associated lava flows, some of which might be less than 10,000 years old, judging from their fresh morphology. The northern part of the field consists of a single vent, the Cerro Keyocc cinder cone, which produced an extensive lava field that covered the plateau to the west during an eruption at about 2650 years ago.

Huanquihue (Volcano)

Huanquihue volcano is a group of young basaltic stratovolcanoes in western Argentina near the border with Chile and south of Lanín volcano. -> See whole entry

Huaynaputina (Volcano)

Huaynaputina volcano (its name meaning "new volcano") is a small volcano located in southern Peru 26 km south of Ubinas volcano. It was the site of the largest historical eruption in South America, which occurred in 1600 and erupted an estimated 30 cubic km of dacitic tephra, including ash fall and pyroclastic flow deposits. Its size can be compared to the 1883 Krakatau eruption. Prior to the 1600 eruption, it had not even been known as a volcano and was described as a "low ridge in the center of a Sierra". -> See whole entry

Hudson (Volcano)

Cerro Hudson volcano in southern Chile is the southernmost active volcano of the Chilean Southern Volcanic Zone caused by subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate. The massive Hudson volcano contains a 10 km wide, almost circular ice-filled caldera, which drains into the Huemules glacier to the north. Mudflows have been generated from this glacier down into the Río de Los Huemeles. 2 cinder cones are located north of the volcano. Other flank cones are found on the SW and SE flanks. The remote volcano was not recognized as such until its first 20th-century eruption in 1971. An eruption in 1991 was Chile's second largest of the 20th century. It formed a new 800-m-wide crater in the SW part of the caldera. -> See whole entry

Huequi (Volcano)

Huequi is an active small stratovolcano in southern Chile. It is located on the Huequi Peninsula in Ancud Bay. Unlike most other stratovolcanoes in the region, there is no glacier on the volcano. Huequi has a parasitic cone on the west flank which contains an 800 m wide crater. Huequi has had frequent explosive eruptions recorded sind the 19th century, most recently in 1920.

Hulubelu (Volcano)

Hulubelu is an elliptical, 4-km-long caldera or volcano-tectonic depression in SE Sumatra. -> See whole entry

Hutapanjang (Volcano)

Huatapanjang stratovolcano, located to the NW of Sumbing volcano, is classified as active by Rock et al. (1982) and Posavec et al. (1973), with no additional information. Little is known of this central Sumatran volcano. It is not sure if the 2009 6.8 R earthquake was connected to the activity of this volcano, but it could be seen as a warning.

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