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Topics: Volcanology glossary | Earthquake glossary

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Maca (Volcano)

Volcán Macá is a large glaciated active stratovolcano in the southernmost part of the South Andean Volcanic Zone, Chile, NW of Puerto Aisén. It is the highest volcano between Lanín and Lautaro volcanoes. Along with Cay and Hudson volcanoes, Maca is one of the central volcanoes on the axis of the Andean volcanic arc. Maca volcano is located 230 km east of the Chile trench where the oceanic Nazca Plate starts to be subducted into the mantle underneath the South America Plate. There are no historic eruptions, but young tephra layers have been found that indicate that the volcano is only dormant. -> See whole entry

Machin (Volcano)

Cerro Machín volcano is a small stratovolcano about 20 km WNW of the city of Ibagué, Colombia. Although there are no historic eruptions, Machin is considered one of the most dangerous volcanoes in Colombia, because it has produced devastating explosive eruptions in its past and will likely to continue so. Pyroclastic flow deposits have been found up to 40 km and mud flow deposits (lahars) up to 109 km distance from the volcano along the Coello and Magdalena rivers. The last known activity took place about 800 years ago. -> See whole entry

Madeira (Volcano)

Madeira Island is the emergent top of a massive shield volcano that rises about 6 km from the floor of the Atlantic Ocean and forms the largest island of the Madeira Archipelago, about 90 km in length. -> See whole entry

Maderas (Volcano)

Maderas volcano is a basaltic to dacitic stratovolcano on the SE end of Ometepe island in Lake Nicaragua. It has a a 800 m wide summit crater which contains the small lake Laguna de Maderas at the bottom. Maderas is still active, but the latest activity dates back more than 3000 years ago and there are no confirmed eruptions in historical time. -> See whole entry

Madilogo (Volcano)

Madilogo is an isolated cinder cone on the SW side of the Owen Stanley Range about 50 km NE of Port Moresby. It was first discovered as a volcano in 1969 and has a small summit crater and a 1 km long lava flow. It probably erupted less than 1000 years ago. -> See whole entry

magma (Volcanology)

Molten rock within a volcano or underneath the earth's surface. Once magma reaches the surface it is called lava.

magnitude (Earthquakes)

A number that characterizes the relative size of an earthquake. Different scales are used, but the most common is the logarithmic Richter scale. where most quakes are between 0 (tiny) and 9 (extremely large quake). Each step on this scale indicates a 10 fold energy increase of an earthquake. Felt quakes are normally above magnitude 2.5 on this scale. -> See whole entry

Mahagnao (Volcano)

Mahagnao volcano (also known as Kasiboi or Casiboi) is a forested andesitic stratovolcano in central Leyte Island, Philippines. The volcano contains a steep-walled forested summit crater open to the south. Malagsom and Danao are 2 lakes located on the south flank. Malagsom Lake is an acidic crater lake with green color. Danao Lake is a freshwater lake with an irregular shoreline and hot springs on its southern side.

Mahawu volcano (Volcano)

mainshock (Earthquakes)

A mainshock is the largest earthquake in a sequence, sometimes preceded by one or more foreshocks, and almost always followed by many aftershocks.

Maipo (Volcano)

Maipo is a conical stratovolcano in the High Andes on the Chile-Argentina border 108 km SE of Santiago. Maipo partially fills the large 15 x 20 km Diamante caldera, which formed about half a million years ago during a massive eruption. -> See whole entry

Makaturing (Volcano)

Makaturing is a stratovolcano at the shore of Illana Bay located about 40 km South of Marawi city, in central Mindanao, Philippines. It is part of the Central Mindanao Arc. Many eruptions reported from Makaturing were actually from neighboring Ragang volcano, and there are only 2 confirmed historic eruptions at Makaturing, the last being in 1882. Makaturing volcano is densely vegetated at present, but there is solfataric activity suggesting that the volcano is only dormant.

Makian volcano (Volcano)

Makiling (Volcano)

Makiling volcano is a small perhaps still active stratovolcano in Laguna Province, Luzon Island, Philippines, on the southern shore of Laguna de Bay close to Manila city. Hot springs are located near Makiling at Los Baños town.

Malabar (Volcano)

Malabar is an old stratovolcano immediately south of the city of Bandung, north of the Wayang-Windu lava dome and west of Kamojang volcano. The 2342-m-high peak is forested to the top and basaltic to andesitic in composition, and but possibly of Holocene age.

Malang Plain (Volcano)

The informally called Malang Plain "volcano" is a group of nine ash cones, maars, and lava domes of Holocene age on the Malang Plain, SE and NE of the city of Malang. Some of these vents may in fact be flank vents of the neighboring huge Tengger volcano, although this is far from certain. The area lies on a distinct N-S fault line which could as well have provided independent pathways for rising magma.

Malinao (Volcano)

Malinao volcano (also known as Buhi or Takit) is a forested stratovolcano north of Mayon volcano and 3 km west of Malinao town, in southern Luzon, Philippines. The volcano contains a large summit crater breached to the east. Malinao was active from about 500,000 to 60,000 years ago, and is probably now extinct. Reports of an eruption in 1628 are probably false and relate to a large debris avalanche and eruption at Iriga volcano. On the eastern flank, it contains Luzon's largest solfatara field and hot springs with deposits of silicious sinter. -> See whole entry

Malindang (Volcano)

Malindang volcano is a stratovolcano on the western margin of Iligan Bay in north-central Mindanao Island, 20 km NE of Tambulig, Philippines. It is part of the Malindang National Park. -> See whole entry

Malindig (Volcano)

Malindig volcano (also known as Marlanga), is an andesitic stratovolcano at the southern tip of Marinduque Island, west of the Bondoc Peninsula on Luzon Island, Philippines. The summit has sharp peaks. No recent eruptions have occurred at the volcano. Hot springs are active at its western base.

Mallahle (Volcano)

Mallahle is a stratovolcano in Eritrea located on the Dankil horst east of the Danakil depression. It belongs to the Bidu volcanic complex, which comprises 3 NE-SW aligned stratovolcanoes (Dubbi, Mallahle and Nabro), as well as the Bara Ale and Sork'Ale volcanoes. -> See whole entry

Mammoth Mountain (Volcano)

Mammoth Mountain is a lava-dome complex on the SW rim of Long Valley caldera, California. Despite its close geographic relation, it is believed that it has its own magma chamber different from the ones underlying Long Valley caldera and the Inyo craters. -> See whole entry

Managlase (Volcano)

Managlase volcano is a volcanic field also known as the Managlase Plateau. It is a triangular-shaped area between 460 and 1070 m altitude 35 km SSE of Popondetta in Papua New Guinea, south of the Hydrographers Range and SW of the Dyke Ackland Bay. The field contains 30 small volcanic centers of late-Pleistocene to Holocene age, including a row of tall cinder cones rising to form the summit at Mount Manna at 1128 m. The last eruption of Managlase Volcano is unknown, but local stories from villages in the area preserve the memory of activity from the Kururui cinder cone and a nearby explosion crater. -> See whole entry

Manam (Volcano)

Manam volcano located 13 km off the northern coast of New Guinea near Bogia town is one of Papua New Guinea's most active volcanoes. It has one of the longest records of historic eruptions in the SE Pacific region. The larger eruptions of Manam produce pyroclastic flows and sometimes lava flows. Both have repeatedly reached the coast and affected populated areas. A large series of eruptions began at Manam in November and December 2004. It forced evacuations from the whole island. A pyroclastic flow at Manam volcano on 3 December 1996 killed 13 people in the village of Budua. -> See whole entry

Manda Hararo (Volcano)

Mandalagan (Volcano)

Mandalagan volcano in northern Negros Island, Central Philippines, is an eroded dominantly andesitic-dacitic volcanic complex. It is formed by 7 volcanic edifices and has at least 5 craters of up to 2 km in diameter, some of which are probably calderas. The age of its last eruptions, which produced a thin basalt lava flow, is unknown. Mandalagan has very active fumaroles in at least 11 locations. One fumarole field is particularly powerful. It emits a high-temperature (106 degrees C) plume to 30 m height accompanied by a roaring noise like a high-pressure geothermal borehole. Mandalagan volcano is part of the northern Negros volcanic arc which also contains Mt Silay (1534 m), Mt Kanlaon (2465 m). Mt Mandalagan volcanoes.

Manuk (Volcano)

Manuk is a small steep-sided island in the Banda volcanic arc. It the easternmost volcano of Indonesia, and located only 750 km north of Darwin, Australia. Manuk volcano rises 3000 m from the sea floor and forms a small truncated cone above water. It has summit crater with active fumaroles on the west side of the crater rim and inside the crater. At present, the island is uninhabited, but in former times, sulfur was being extracted from the crater on a small scale by Chines traders. There are no confirmed historical eruptions from Manuk volcano, although there is an uncertain report that a member of the 1874 Challenger Expedition saw smoke rising from the crater of Manuk.

Marapi volcano (Volcano)

Marco Fulle ()

Dr. Marco Fulle, Italian astronomer and volcano expert is considered world-wide as among the elite of volcano photographers. -> See whole entry

Mare (Volcano)

Mare volcano forms a small 2x3 km wide island off the west coast of Halmahera, Indonesia. It belongs to the active volcanic chain off the western coast of Halmahera. Mare volcano has a breached crater at the SW end. There are no known historic eruptions.

Mariveles (Volcano)

The small, but voluminous Mariveles stratovolcano is located at the southern end of the Bataan Peninsula, on the west side of Manila Bay, Luzon Island, Philippines. Although there are no known eruptions in historic times, it is a still active stratovolcano of andesitic composition. It has a 4-km-wide caldera open to the south. Mount Slamet on the north and Mount Limay on the east are 2 large, young flank cones.

Markagunt Plateau (Volcano)

The Markagunt Plateau volcanic field, located east of Cedar Breaks National Monument in SW Utah, is a group of cinder cones and lava vents on Markagunt Plateau. The youngest cinder cones are located near Panguitch Lake in the north and Navajo Lake in the south. Volcanic activity on the eastern Markagunt Plateau began about 5 million years ago and has been continuing up to the last eruption, which occurred only about 1,000 years ago. The date was obtained by dendrochronology, i.e. by counting the growth rings and thus, the age, of the oldest trees on the flow. A common maximum age of 900 years for the oldest present trees (big gnarled junipers (/. scapularium)) was found, which suggests the age of the flow being only about 1000 years old, if the first trees appeared to grow 100 years after the flow was emplaced. -> See whole entry

Marta Gasparrini ()

Dr. Marta Gasparrini (34) was born in southern Italy, where she graduated in Earth Sciences. -> See whole entry

Masaraga (Volcano)

Masaraga is a stratovolcano with a pointed top located 10 km NW of Mayon volcano on Luzon Island in the Philippines. The flanks of the andesitic-to-ryholitic volcano are covered by forested thick lava flows, indicating no recent eruptions, but it is thought that it has erupted during the past 10,000 years and might still be active.

Masaya (Volcano)

Masaya volcano 25 km SE from Managua is one of Nicaragua's most active and usual volcanoes. In contrast to most other volcanoes in subduction zones, it has been erupting mainly fluid basaltic lava. At the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, it contained an active lava lake and it is reported that there were attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Masaya is a complex consisting of a 6×11.5 km large caldera with steep, up to 300 m high walls, and a group of young cones at the NW end including Nindirí and Masaya volcano proper. There are multiple summit craters including the currently active Santiago crater, the site of the current activity. -> See whole entry

Mascota (Volcano)

Mascota is a volcanic field in western Mexico near the town of Mascota. It covers about 2000 sq km and has 87 small cinder cones and lava flows. The youngest volcanic activity took place at Volcán Malpaís north of Mascota and produced a basaltic-andesite lava flow probably only a few thousand years ago. -> See whole entry

Mashu (Volcano)

Mashu volcano is a 7 km wide caldera in NE Hokkaido, Japan. The caldera formed ca. 7000 years ago and truncates a stratovolcano which formed the ESE rim of the large Kutcharo caldera to the west. The steep-walled Mashu caldera contains Lake Mashu (摩周湖 Mashū-ko), known for its very clear water, and is one of the scenic highlights of Hokkaido. -> See whole entry

Matutum (Volcano)

Matutum is a symmetrical stratovolcano located in southern Mindanao, NW of Sarangani Bay and 30 km NNW of General Santos City. The mountain, a popular hiking destination, has a well-preserved summit cone and a 320 m wide and a vegetated 120 m deep summit crater. The crater is breached by 3 large canyons. -> See whole entry

Mauna Loa (Volcano)

Mayon (Volcano)

Mayon, the most famous of the active volcanoes of the Philippines, is a perfect stratovolcano rising to 2462 m on Luzon Island. It erupts very frequently. -> See whole entry

Meager (Volcano)

Meager volcano is a young andesitic-to-rhyodacitic stratovolcano located 150 km north of Vancouver in SW British Columbia, Canada. It is the northernmost member of the Cascade Range volcano which extend into northern California, USA. -> See whole entry

Medicine Lake (Volcano)

Medicine Lake is a large shield volcano in northeastern California about 50 km (30 mi) northeast of Mount Shasta, rising about 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) above the Modoc Plateau to an elevation of 2,376 metres (7,795 ft). It contains a 12 km x 7 km wide caldera. The shield volcano is composed primarily of basaltic lava flows up to about 1 km thick, but measures 35 from E to W and 45 km from N to S, covering more than 2000 km2. Its sheer weight has bended the underlying strata down by 0.5 km under its center. It contains at least 600 km3 of lava, making it the most voluminous volcano of the Cascades. Although it probably has not erupted for 1000 years, there have been at least 6 eruptions during the past 4,000 years, and it is likely to erupt again in the future. Its proximity to inhabited towns, roads and other infrastructure, it has been designated a "high threat volcano" by the USGS. It is believed that the Medicine Lake volcano is fed by many small magma chambers rather than one large one.

Medvezhia (Volcano)

The Medvezhia (Moyorodake in Japanese) volcano complex (including Medvezhii, Srednii, Kudryavy or Men’shoi Brat volcano) is one of the Kurile's most active volcanoes. It is located on the NE end of Iturup Island, Kurile Islands. It is remarkable for its high temperature fumaroles. Medvezhia volcano has 2 overlapping calderas, 14 x 18 and 10 x 12 km in diameter, which were formed more than 10,000 years ago, and a row of 4 stratovolcanoes close to each other along a E-W line on the eastern side of the complex (from E to W): Medvezhii volcano, the highest and located outside the western caldera, Srednii, Tukap, and Kudriavy volcanoes. All historic activity has been from Kudryavy volcano (Moyoro-dake in Japanese), which is younger than 2000 years only. Besides Kudryanvy, only Tukap volcano has active fumaroles. Another vent of recent, but not historically observed activity is the Menshoi Brat lava dome inside the caldera. -> See whole entry

Megata (Volcano)

Megata volcano is a group of 3 small explosion craters (maars) along the tip of the Oga Peninsula in NW Honshu. Recent studies have shown that they have been active during the past 10,000 years. -> See whole entry

Melimoyu (Volcano)

Melimoyu is an active stratovolcano in southern Chile, 40 km NW of the town of Puyuhuapi and 135 km south of Chaiten volcano. The volcano has an 8 km wide ice-filled caldera, which is largely filled by a younger edifice and is drained by a glacier flowing through a gap in the NE caldera rim. The basaltic-andesite volcano is elongated 10 km in an E-W direction and has several cinder cones and a 1 km wide summit crater. Two large explosive eruptions have been identified at Melimoyu volcano from tephra layers (MEL-1 and MEL-2) and been dated to ca. 1800 and 2800 years ago.

Mendeleev (Volcano)

Mendeleev (Rausu-dake in Japanese) is a low stratovolcano on Kunashir Island in the southern Kurile Islands, 40 km from Hokkiado in Northern Japan. The volcano is composed of 3 nested calderas measuring 6x9 km (the oldest caldera), 3x3.5 km, and 1x1 km (youngest caldera). A large sub-aerial eruption occurred during the formation of the youngest 1x1 km caldera. It was followed by the growth of an extrusive lava dome 2550 ± 40 years ago. The effusive activity continued for several centuries. Mendeleev volcano contains a shallow magma chamber at 4.5 km depth and a deep magma source at a depth of 30-60 km. -> See whole entry

Mentolat (Volcano)

Volcán Mentolat is an active stratovolcano southern Chile located in the central part of Magdalena Island across the Puyuhuapi strait from Puerto Cisnes. The volcano has an ice-filled, 6 km wide caldera. The most recent eruption at Mentolat volcano was around the year 1710. It may have produced a prominent young andesitic lava flow on the western slope of the volcano. An explosive eruption about 7000 years ago produced a wide-spread pumice and scoria layer that extends to the SE.

Merapi (Volcano)

Merapi, a steep stratovolcano north of Central Java's capital Yogyakarta, is Indonesia's most active volcano. It erupts on average every 5-10 years and is feared for its deadly pyroclastic flows - avalanches of hot rocks and gas that are generated when parts of new lava domes constructed during eruptions in the summit crater collapse and slide down the mountain's steep flanks. The name "Merapi" from old Javanese language means "the one making fire" is a popular name for volcanoes: another volcano with the same name Merapi is in the Ijen Massif in East Java and similarly called volcano "Marapi" lies on Sumatra Island. -> See whole entry

Methana (Place: Methana peninsula)

Methana is a small town in the eastern part of Peloponnese mainland in Greece. -> See whole entry

Methana (volcano) (Volcano)

Methana peninsula (Place: Methana volcanic peninsula)

A volcanic peninsula at the eastern coast of Peloponnese -> See whole entry

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