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Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai volcano
Submarine volcano 149 m / 489 ft
Tonga, Tonga Islands, -20.57°S / -175.38°W
Current status: normal or dormant (1 out of 5) | Reports
Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai volcano eruptions:
2014, 2009, 1988
Typical eruption style:
Last earthquakes nearby
Latest satellite images

Sentinel hub | Landsat 8

Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai volcano news & activity updates:

Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai volcano (Tonga Islands): eruption continues under water

Wed, 7 Jan 2015, 13:40
13:40 PM | BY: T
Activity continues, but seems not to have breached the surface (for now). Recent satellite imagery with clear views show a discolored water plume and a steam plume but no ash, suggesting that that the activity is still well below the surface.

Hunga Ha'apa and Hunga Tonga islands are subaerial parts of a large caldera of about 6 km diameter. A number of cones have been built near its rim during past eruptions, including the Hunga Ha'apa and Hunga Tonga islands themselves.
The eruption of 1988 took place from a fissure on the Hunga Ha'apai cone near the south rim of the caldera. Being at 200 m depth, it remained completely under water; only single pumice and scoria blocks floated to the surface during the eruption.
The eruption in 2009 took place again from the Hunga Ha'apai volcano, but this time the fissure cut trough the island and occurred in shallow water, producing spectacular surtseyan explosions.
The current eruption seems to occur from another location, again at deeper water depth: judging from the origin location of the steam plume, its vent is likely on the NE base of the submarine base of Hunga Ha'apai island, or on the valley separating it from Hunga Tonga island to the NE.
Links / Sources:
Previous news
Wed, 31 Dec 2014, 18:18
Comparison of satellite images of the area of Hunga Tonga-Hunga volcano from 18 and 29 Dec 2014, showing the plume from underwater activity on the latter (images: NASA / annotations: Culture Volcan)
A new submarine eruption started at the shallow submarine volcano off Tongatapu island in the Tonga archipelago. read all
Wed, 18 Mar 2009, 22:23
A new eruption is taking place in the Tonga islands in the South Sea, between the small islands of Hunga Tonga and Hunga Ha'apai, which are the tiny suaerial parts of a large underwater volcano located about 30 km SSE of Falcon Island. The last eruptions in this area were reported in 1912, 1937 and 1988. ... read all

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