BackgroundThe Ijen volcano complex at the eastern end of Java consists of a group of small stratovolcanoes constructed within the large 20-km-wide Ijen (Kendeng) caldera. The north caldera wall forms a prominent arcuate ridge, but elsewhere the caldera rim is buried by post-caldera volcanoes, including Gunung Merapi stratovolcano, which forms the 2799 m high point of the Ijen complex. Immediately west of Gunung Merapi is the renowned historically active Kawah Ijen volcano, which contains a nearly 1-km-wide, turquoise-colored, acid crater lake. Picturesque Kawah Ijen is the world's largest highly acidic lake and is the site of a labor-intensive sulfur mining operation in which sulfur-laden baskets are hand-carried from the crater floor. Many other post-caldera cones and craters are located within the caldera or along its rim. The largest concentration of post-caldera cones forms an E-W-trending zone across the southern side of the caldera. Coffee plantations cover much of the Ijen caldera floor, and tourists are drawn to its waterfalls, hot springs, and dramatic volcanic scenery.
Blue flames. Breathing was only possible with a good gas mask and staying near the burning sulfur was only possible for a very short time. (Photo: Andi Rosadi)
Ijen volcano tours:From Krakatau to Bali (16-days study and photo tour to Java, Indonesia)Volcanoes of Java (17-day walking and trekking tour on Java)Dream Come True - World Volcano Tour (4-week round-the-world trip to Hawaii - Vanuatu - New Zealand - Indonesia)Volcanoes of East Java (4-5 days walking tour to Bromo, Semeru and Ijen)Bromo, Semeru, Ijen (trekking tour to Semeru, Bromo, Ijen volcanoes (East Java))
See also: Sentinel hub | Landsat 8