Damavand vulcano books:stratovulcano 5670 m / 18,602 ft
Mazandaran Province, Iran, 35.95°N / 52.11°E
The summit crater of DamavandVolcanologist from Geneva climbed Damavand on 12 July 1993 and 1 August 1999. They observed a small, powerful fumarolic vent on the S rim of the crater, which emitted SO2-rich gases at a temperature of about 50°C.
Sulfur deposits were present on the surrounding slopes. The summit crater itself was about 150 m wide and 20 m deep, and contained a 40-m-diameter frozen lake in the bottom.
There is o permanent glacier because the climate is too dry, but there are patches of hardened perennial snow (névés).
Vertical coal deposits were found on the N flank below 2,450 m elevation, reaching thicknesses of tens of meters. Above 4,000 m elevation huge blocks were seen that probably had fallen and rolled down from 1 km above. Just below the summit, large sulfur-bearing blocks were found. Within 100 m of the N rim of the summit pblocks of pure sulfur were found.
(Source: GVP / Smithsonian monthly reports)