SfondoNevado de Toluca Volcano is a complex andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano and has a 1.5-km-wide summit crater that is open to the east. A large dacitic lava dome in this crater separates two lakes, known as the lakes of the Sun and Moon.
At least 3 major edifice collapses during the Pleistocene produced large debris-avalanche and lahar deposits that affected broad areas below the volcano.
2 violent Pelean eruptions during the late Pleistocene produced widespread ashfall and pyroclastic-flow deposits. The last of these, radiocarbon dated at about 10,500 years before present, produced the Upper Toluca Pumice.
More recent work has revealed evidence for at least one Holocene eruption, about 3300 years ago, that produced pyroclastic flows and surges.
- GVP, Smithsonian Institution
- García-Palomo et al (2002) "Geology of Nevado de Toluca Volcano and
surrounding areas, central Mexico", Geol. S. Am. Map and Chart Series MCH089
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