BackgroundJocotitlán is an isolated composite volcano that rises 1300 m above the Toluca basin. The 3900-m-high volcano was constructed during the Pleistocene and mainly consists of andesitic-to-dacitic lava flows.
A major obsidian-bearing dacitic plinian eruption was followed by the emplacement of a dacitic lava-dome complex, accompanied by lava effusion, pumice-fall eruptions, and pyroclastic surges.
The most prominent feature of Jocotitlán volcano is a horseshoe-shaped escarpment open to the NE that formed as a result of gravitational failure of the summit during the early Holocene. The resulting debris-avalanche deposit covers an 80 sq km area to the NE. Lava dome emplacement accompanied by pyroclastic flows and surges subsequently filled much of the avalanche scarp.
Source: GVP, Smithsonian Institution
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