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Krakatau volcano
Caldera 813 m (2,667 ft.) / Anak Krakatau: 189 m
Sunda Strait, Indonesia, -6.1°S / 105.42°E
Current status: minor activity or eruption warning (3 out of 5)
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Krakatau volcano eruptions:
1530, 1680-81, 1684, 1883 (Plinian eruption), 1927-30, 1931-32, 1932-34, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938-40, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1946-47, 1949, 1950, 1952, 1953, 1955, 1958-59, 1959-63, 1965(?), 1969(?), 1972-73, 1975, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1988, 1992-93, 1994-95, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2007-8, April 2009-early 2010, Oct 2010 - March 2011, July-Oct 2011, Jan-May + Sep 2012, 2015(?), 2017, 2018 (22 Dec eruption & tsunami)
Typical eruption style:
Explosive. Construction of a cinder cone  island (Anak Krakatau) inside the caldera formed by the 1883 eruption. Frequent strombolian activity.
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Krakatoa (Krakatau) volcano news & eruption updates:

Krakatoa volcano (Sunda Strait, Indonesia): first estimates on the effect of the tsunami-triggering landslide

Saturday Dec 29, 2018 10:09 AM | BY: T

Krakatoa seen yesterday from the coast - Anak Krakatau is no longer visible, only small ash and steam plumes rising from behind Sertung (image: VSI webcam)
Krakatoa seen yesterday from the coast - Anak Krakatau is no longer visible, only small ash and steam plumes rising from behind Sertung (image: VSI webcam)
Seismicity of Krakatoa during the past weeks (image: VSI)
Seismicity of Krakatoa during the past weeks (image: VSI)
The activity at the volcano continues at reduced rate. Steam explosions have been more intermittent and smaller during the past 2 days, generating plumes that rose a few hundred meters only.
This trend corresponds to the seismic signals showing a marked decrease since the surge of supply of magma that led to the paroxysm during 21-22 Dec, which accumulated lots of new lava. This in turn might have been "the last straw that breaks the camel's back", i.e. the additional sudden weight on the slopes and/or the shaking induced by the continuous explosions could might have been the final trigger for the landslide to occur.
The Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Disaster Mitigation (PVMBG) published a first official estimate on the effects of the landslide:
- The summit of Anak Krakatau originally 338 meters high is now reduced to only 110 meters, i.e. most of the summit cone has indeed disappeared.
- As a consequence, Anak Krakatau island is no longer visible from the mainland, as the island of Panjang (Long Island) blocks the view from Java's west coast.
- The volume of the collapse is estimated to be between 150-180 million m3, while the remaining volume is currently estimated at between 40-70 million m3.
- For this reason, unless tectonic faults in the area of the Sunda Strait are activated, the risk of other massive landslides and tsunamis is currently deemed to be low.

What's next?
However, it is likely that the current eruption continues and is only in a phase of low activity currently; if the cyclic pattern of increased supply every few weeks continues, another phase of stronger activity during January would not be surprising.
Links / Sources:
Previous news
Friday, Dec 28, 2018
After almost 6 days of an almost non-stop ash plume to 55,000ft following the devastating collapse, Darwin VAAC reports that activity has finally subsided with only very minor emissions. No updates about local conditions at the moment. [more]
Krakatau with steam explosions seen yesterday (image:  Sutopo Purwo Nugroho @Sutopo_PN / twitter)
Thursday, Dec 27, 2018
The violent explosive activity caused by magma-water interaction continues at the volcano, from the area where the summit cone collapsed on 22 Dec and now exposes the vent to sea water. ... [more]
Exaggerated  cross section and bathymetry of the Krakatau caldera, showing the flank collapse modeled in 2012 (image: Giachetti et al, 2012)
Tuesday, Dec 25, 2018
Sometimes, science has already answers for tragic events, but their voice is not heard or underestimated at the time. The Indonesia tsunami disaster two days ago is such an example: What happened on 22 Dec 2018 had actually already been described and warned about for years in amazing detail: ... [more]
Monday, Dec 24, 2018
A version with the start of the explosion filmed in Oct slowed down 10x where you can see how it breaks through the cone itself: ... [more]
Monday, Dec 24, 2018
The triggering cause of Saturday's tsunami is still being discussed. A common and likely interpretation is a landslide, which could have been caused by either, or a combination of: ... [more]

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