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La Palma, Canary Islands: eruption Sep 2021 - archived updates (part 5, 9-27 Nov 2021)

Updated: Dec 3, 2022 14:57 GMT -

Eruption calmer today, but inflation might announce new surge of magma

Update Sat 27 Nov 2021 17:38
Lava fountaining from the main vent on La Palma this morning (image: Canarias TV live stream)
Lava fountaining from the main vent on La Palma this morning (image: Canarias TV live stream)
Ground deformation at LP03 station past 7 days (image: IGN)
Ground deformation at LP03 station past 7 days (image: IGN)
Current tremor amplitude past 7 days (IGN)
Current tremor amplitude past 7 days (IGN)
The eruption has been a little bit today, at least at the surface, while internal activity remains similar. Lava fountaining activity at the vents continues, but less intense compared to the past days. The ash and steam plume reached only little more than 1,000 m altitude today, although this is partly due to stronger eastern winds that push the plume down and over the ocean.
Lava effusion continues, but it is difficult to estimate the amount erupted as most of it is going into the tube system.
As inflation is picking up again, there is a possibility that more lava is being stored at depth than currently erupted, and a new surge of lava output is likely to occur in the near future to make up for the current drop.
The lava flows that erupted from the new fissure, which had opened Thursday evening less than 1000 m south of the main cone, with one of the effusive vents appearing right next to an abandoned house, seemed no longer or very little active in the latest assessment of the scientific monitoring team.
However, (at least as of yesterday afternoon when the latest reliable information is available), lava continued to aliment various other flow arms labelled 5, 6, 7, 9, mostly in the area between La Laguna and Todoque. Only minor amounts of lava arrived at the northern ocean delta, while none currently seems to reach the larger southern delta.

The seismicity continues with no significant change compared to the past days. In total, 74 quakes were detected under the central area of ​​Cumbre Vieja clustered in the two layers of around 10-15 km (15 quakes) and the others at depths beneath 30 km. The largest recent quake was a magnitude 3.5 event yesterday evening at 7.56 p.m.
The amplitude of the volcanic tremor signal continues at low to moderate levels with fluctuations.
More notably, however, is the inflation recorded at the station LP03, now reaching an uplift of 12 cm compared to the pre-eruption situation, with 6 cm added since yesterday.

According to the latest official data from the land registry, the lava flows have destroyed 1,506 buildings destroyed, of which 1,212 are for residential use, 161 for agricultural use, 67 for industrial use, 36 for hostels, 13 for public use and 16 for other uses.
However, when analyzing satellite-based imagery, the number is much higher: there are 2,786 buildings / constructions affected, 2,695 in their entirety and 91 partially. The discrepancy might at least in parts be due to the fact that many buildings have been destroyed not by lava flows, but the heavy ash deposits that reach several meters especially in some areas close to the vents.

Airport reopens

Update Sat 27 Nov 2021 17:07
Thanks to changing winds, the airport could resume operations this afternoon. Passengers are strongly advised to check with their airline about the status of flights.

La Palma volcano eruption update: activity remains intense with lava fountains and ash emissions

Fri, 26 Nov 2021, 15:53
15:53 PM | BY: T
Ash- and gas-rich lava fountain at the active cone this evening (image: Canarias TV live stream)
Ash- and gas-rich lava fountain at the active cone this evening (image: Canarias TV live stream)
Volcanic tremor amplitude past 7 days showing significant spikes (image: IGN)
Volcanic tremor amplitude past 7 days showing significant spikes (image: IGN)
Seismic signal TBT station since yesterday (image: IGN)
Seismic signal TBT station since yesterday (image: IGN)
Ground deformation at LP03 station (image: IGN)
Ground deformation at LP03 station (image: IGN)
The activity remains elevated. After yesterday's surges of lava from a new fissure system south of the cone, lava fountains returned to the main vents at the cone, first in form of a round dome-shaped fountain of very liquid lava from the lower vent (see previous update with video), and later as a taller, more gas-rich jetting fountain from the summit vent which had been very active especially in the early phase of the eruption.
The latter activity has continued throughout a very stormy and rainy night and into this morning, then decreased a bit although it still produces fountains as of this update. The generated ash plumes rose to up to 3,500 m altitude and drifted east where it continues to disable the airport, now closed for 6 or 7 days in a row. Many airlines have canceled flights to La Palma altogether for the whole time up to spring next year due to the uncertainty whether the airport is operational or not, and whether they can actually fill seats. Requests to travel to the island likely have dropped massively, further damaging its economy that already suffered a very hard blow from the eruption.

A video of today's activity at the main vent:
Seismic activity overall remains low and comparable to the past days. The National Geographic Institute (IGN) reported a total of 44 earthquakes in its latest 24-hour reporting period. 5 of them were felt by the population and the strongest one was last night's magnitude 4.8 quake at 10.40 p.m. with a depth of 37 km.
The seismicity continues under the central area of ​​Cumbre Vieja volcano in the same areas as before. A change in distribution of depth occurred although it is likely an effect of- most of the latest recorded earthquakes are located at depths 10-15 km and only 7 of them at depths greater than 30 km.
The amplitude of the volcanic tremor signal continues to be low, but with very significant upwards spikes corresponding to the increased lava effusion phases, one likely in progress at the time of this update as there is a new tall spike visible.
Inflation has restarted at the LP3 station closest to the vents. Likely, this means another pulse of magma underway, which (as a speculation) could be in relationship with last night's magnitude 4.8 quake.
In the other stations, the slight deflation possibly related to deep seismicity has stabilized, IGN reported.
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions were at 5,250 tons per day.
The current height of the cone was measured at 1,126 m. above sea level, but it's likely to continue to grow even more with time.


Update Fri 26 Nov 2021 15:17
Latest map of the lava flows showing part of the new flow (dark red on the southern margin)(image: info.igme.es)
Latest map of the lava flows showing part of the new flow (dark red on the southern margin)(image: info.igme.es)

Spectacular dome fountain last night

Update Fri 26 Nov 2021 15:14
Dome-shaped lava fountain yesterday evening at La Palma (image: Klaus Dederding / Manfred Betzwieser / facebook)
Dome-shaped lava fountain yesterday evening at La Palma (image: Klaus Dederding / Manfred Betzwieser / facebook)
Yesterday evening, another surge of lava occurred at the main cone, producing a dome-shaped lava fountain at the lower vent, while ash-and gas-rich fountains were jetting from the main vent above:

View of the new vents

Update Fri 26 Nov 2021 14:57
The following drone video taken yesterday by IGN shows the new (fissure) vents that opened and fed the new lava flow:

Update Fri 26 Nov 2021 14:49
The latest drone video taken by the local government of El Paso this morning shows the lava flow from the new vent traveling southwest towards the Las Manchas neighborhood (Rajada / Tajogaite Mountain), via El Corazoncillo, La Montaña de Cogote and the Los Angeles Cemetery:


And another video of the flows yesterday near the vents:

Latest data on lava flow coverage and damage

Update Thu 25 Nov 2021 19:58
The latest data published indicate that more than 1,100 hectares of land have been covered by lava flows, with a maximum width of the flows reaching 3,350 meters. The southern lava delta has an area of approximately 43.46 hectares, while the northern lava delta is estimated at just over 5 hectares.
Official figures count 1,484 destroyed buildings, of which 1,195 were for residential use, 160 for agricultural use, 67 industrial, 34 hostelry, 123 for public use, and 15 for other uses.
The area covered by lava includes 340.59 hectares of farm land, out of which 211.19 were banana plantations, 60 vineyards and more than 26 avocado plantations. If to count as well areas enclosed by lava flows or destroyed by ash fall, there are additional 412 hectares of banana plantations, 128 ha of vineyards and 84 ha of avocado plantations to count so far.

New vent reported south of the main cone

Update Thu 25 Nov 2021 19:51
The new lava flow at Las Manchas in the afternoon (image: INVOLCAN / twitter)
The new lava flow at Las Manchas in the afternoon (image: INVOLCAN / twitter)
According to INVOLCAN, a new fissure (?) vent has actually opened south of the main cone, which has been feeding today's new and very well alimented lava flow that quickly reached Las Manchas to the southwest.
INVOLCAN mentioned that its velocity (presumably near the vent) was 600 m per hour at 5.15 p.m.:
Update Thu 25 Nov 2021 19:41
Watch the spectacular video of the lava flows today at night, taken by a drone:


Video of the lava flows at Las Manchas:

La Palma volcano eruption update: new lava flow travels to Las Manchas, destroying power plant and cemetery

Thu, 25 Nov 2021, 17:41
17:41 PM | BY: T
New lava flow on La Palma today (image: Gobierno de Canarias)
New lava flow on La Palma today (image: Gobierno de Canarias)
Current seismic signal LP01 station (image: IGN)
Current seismic signal LP01 station (image: IGN)
Tremor amplitude from the eruption so far (image: INVOLCAN / Twitter)
Tremor amplitude from the eruption so far (image: INVOLCAN / Twitter)
Seismic activity and cumulative energy during the past 14 days
Seismic activity and cumulative energy during the past 14 days
Activity had been weaker throughout the night and less lava was visible at night compared to previous days, but this changed dramatically in the morning: at around 9 a.m. local time, an episode of sudden increase in the emission of lava occurred at the main effusive vent, and around 11 o'clock, from some of the most eastern emission points, a new voluminous and very liquid lava flow began to pour out towards the southwest, traveling parallel to the previous flow labeled #10.
The new lava flow quickly reached the southernmost end of the existing flow field and invaded new land, destroying a photovoltaic station and the Las Manchas cemetery. Although its advance has slowed down to about 25 m per hour later in the day, it is still threatening other urbanized areas, all of which have already been evacuated.
Apart from this new lava flow, also the earlier flows number 7, 5 and 1 continued to be active. The increase in the lava emission rate also resulted in an increase of lava channels and overflows of the other lava flows that have been active in the past days in the area between flows #4 and #7 near La Laguna and around the NE zone of the Todoque Mountain.
No or only little lava seems to be currently reaching the sea entries, but this can change quickly, especially if the new flow remains active. At the cone, near-continuous mild fountaining and dense ash emissions from the main vents have been producing ash plumes rising up to 4,800 m elevation and drifting over to the east side where the airport remains out of operations.
Ground deformation showed a slight decrease since yesterday and while earthquakes have picked up a little bit, but no quake above magnitude 3.9 has occurred in the past 24 hours. In total, there were 12 quakes of magnitude 3.0-3.9 and 20 quakes between 2.0-3.0.
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Links / Sources:
Update Thu 25 Nov 2021 08:44
Watch a drone fly from the active lava flows to the vents (video taken yesterday 1.30 p.m.by the municipality of El Paso):

La Palma volcano update: lava continues to flow and ash plume keeps airport shut

Wed, 24 Nov 2021, 18:59
18:59 PM | BY: T
Volcanologist working at installing an instrument near the active cone (image: Arturo Rodríguez / IGN / twitter)
Volcanologist working at installing an instrument near the active cone (image: Arturo Rodríguez / IGN / twitter)
Today's aerial image taken by the government drone (image: La Palma Open Data)
Today's aerial image taken by the government drone (image: La Palma Open Data)
Enlarged section showing the active lava flows near La Laguna
Enlarged section showing the active lava flows near La Laguna
Ash emission at the cone today (image: Canarias TV live stream)
Ash emission at the cone today (image: Canarias TV live stream)
Earthquakes, tremor amplitude and deformation today (image: IGN)
Earthquakes, tremor amplitude and deformation today (image: IGN)
Activity continues with little changes, but has been lower today. Lava supply to the latest sea entry seems to have stopped after it had grown to approx. 5 hectares in size by last night. Active lava flows on the surface are in the area la La Laguna, where at least one of the fronts continues to invade some of the remaining islands of uncovered land.
At the vents, mild fountaining and dense ash emissions continued most of the day, generating a plume that rose up to 4,300 m altitude and continued to drift towards the east coast, disabling operations at the airport. The situation is likely to remain like this for the next few days, unfortunately. While causing problems on the east coast, the westerly winds create relief with better air quality for the plagued Aridane valley and other areas of the western side of the island…
Volcanic tremor, and likely the flux rate of magma, have been at similar, overall comparably low values as yesterday. An interesting 3-D animation of the relief, both above and under water, and the current lava flow field can be seen in the following video:
Activity continues with little changes, but has been lower today. Lava supply to the latest sea entry seems to have stopped after it had grown to approx. 5 hectares in size by last night. Active lava flows on the surface are in the area la La Laguna, where at least one of the fronts continues to invade some of the remaining islands of uncovered land.
At the vents, mild fountaining and dense ash emissions continued most of the day, generating a plume that rose up to 4,300 m altitude and continued to drift towards the east coast, disabling operations at the airport. The situation is likely to remain like this for the next few days, unfortunately. While causing problems on the east coast, the westerly winds create relief with better air quality for the plagued Aridane valley and other areas of the western side of the island…
Volcanic tremor, and likely the flux rate of magma, have been at similar, overall comparably low values as yesterday. An interesting 3-D animation of the relief, both above and under water, and the current lava flow field can be seen in the following video:

There has not been significant ground deformation since yesterday, except a slight deflation at the station closest to the volcano. Seismic activity has been much calmer than most days, with no quake at or above magnitude 4 occurring during 24 hours (something that can change quickly, though). The National Geographic Institute (IGN) recorded 72 earthquakes in total, out of which 5 were felt. Most of them /(48) occurred in the deeper layer at depths of 30 km or more.z

Tremor and earthquake activity remain at similar levels as yesterday, curfew lifted for nearby towns.

Update Tue 23 Nov 2021 15:33
Volcanic tremor amplitude past 7 days (image: IGN)
Volcanic tremor amplitude past 7 days (image: IGN)
Volcanic tremor remains at low values, with some short pulses of intensification, similar as yesterday. No significant change in ground deformation was detected and earthquakes have also been similar as yesterday.
IGN reported a total of 98 earthquakes during its latest 24-hour reporting interval, with 6 of them felt by the population. The strongest quake in the past 24 hours was a magnitude 4.8 event at 1.03 a.m. local time.
Most quakes (84 out of the 98) continue to be in the lower layer at around or more than 30 km depth, while the others occurred in the shallow area located at around 12 km depth.
The newest lava flow delta has already grown to 9 hectares in size, the government reported. Since none of the acid steam is drifting into these areas, the curfew issued yesterday as a protection measure against the potentially hazardous steam plumes has been lifted for the populated centers to the north, namely San Borondón, Tazacorte, and the section from El Cardón to Camino Los Palomares.
The eruption plume was estimated to rise to 3,700 m altitude today. It has continued to drift east, disabling operations of the airport also today.

Area covered by lava flows increases to 1,073 hectares

Update Tue 23 Nov 2021 15:19
According to the latest official data, the area covered by lava flows increased by 13 hectares since yesterday and amounts to 1,073.21 hectares in total.

Latest lava flow map

Update Tue 23 Nov 2021 15:15
Latest map of the lava flows (image: info.igme.es)
Latest map of the lava flows (image: info.igme.es)
The latest lava flow map showing the active lava flows along with yesterday's sea entry at Playa de la Viña; the newest one is from the flow just north of it, which has advanced to the ocean after the creation of the map.

Second lava arm reaches the sea, generating massive rockfalls at the sea cliff

Update Tue 23 Nov 2021 15:12
Thick dust clouds rising as the lava flow falls over the sea cliff (image: RTVE live steam)
Thick dust clouds rising as the lava flow falls over the sea cliff (image: RTVE live steam)
Another branch of the active lava flow made it to the ocean today, traveling south of the one that reached it yesterday and creating yet another sea entry.
On its path down the sea cliff, it has been destabilizing rocks from the cliff wall, which have been falling down in rockfalls that generate thick dust clouds in addition to the steam from the lava entering the ocean.

Today's drone overflight:

Eruptive activity remains spectacular, but continues decreasing trend

Update Mon 22 Nov 2021 18:45
Lava flows in large channels near La Laguna today (image: INVOLCAN /twitter)
Lava flows in large channels near La Laguna today (image: INVOLCAN /twitter)
Current tremor amplitude past 7 days (IGN)
Current tremor amplitude past 7 days (IGN)
The eruption column this morning (image: IGN)
The eruption column this morning (image: IGN)
Earthquakes under La Palma during the past 3 days (image: IGN)
Earthquakes under La Palma during the past 3 days (image: IGN)
Current seismic signal at La Palma's TBT station showing the larger quakes today (image: IGN)
Current seismic signal at La Palma's TBT station showing the larger quakes today (image: IGN)
Despite the spectacular display of lava flows traveling and reaching the sea again today, the overall tendency of the eruption remains on a very slow, gradual decreasing trajectory.
At the vents, the activity had been relatively calm last evening and during the night, as observers reported not hearing much and not seeing much lava being ejected. However, it likely increased again in the morning, as explosive activity remains significant during phases, when it creates ash plumes that rise up to 10,000 ft (3,000 m) altitude and drift towards the east (where the airport is located, forced to stop its operations).
All the time, lava effusion continues, as the actively flowing lava flows are proving. Besides the spectacular lava flow feeding the new delta, along and partially on top of the flow labelled #7, at least 3 other lava-tube fed flows remain active as well (#1, #2, and #9, which more less have merged into one large lobe).
However, it is likely that the overall flow rate is less than some weeks ago, if this correlates with the volcanic tremor that continues to be at low levels - albeit with short-lived spikes - and follows the general decreasing trend.
Gas emissions although still high have been dropping over the past days to around 900-1300 tons per day of SO2, while total CO2 emissions remain similar as in the past days at 2,000-2,300 tons per day. Similarly, ground deformation has returned to the state before the most recent inflation pulse and associated magma surge during 17-19 Nov, reverting (or resetting) all of the vertical and most of the horizontal ground displacements that had manifested themselves during this period, the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) reported. In other words, the additional magma that caused it, by entering the shallow plumbing system under the vent area, should have all come out by now.
However, despite the clear decreasing trend, a near end of the eruption is probably not in sight yet.
Here are some videos of the activity today:

Earthquakes remain at similar numbers and intensity as in the past days. During the latest 24 hour reporting window, IGN has detected 76 earthquakes, with most of them being in the deeper layer below 30 km depth. 6 quakes were felt on the island today. The largest was a magnitude 4.8 quake this morning at 8.09 a.m..

Latest data on lava flow damage

Update Mon 22 Nov 2021 17:59
According to the latest official data as of this afternoon, the lava flows have covered an area of 1,060.22 hectares, which does not yet include the size of the new sea delta that was formed today and continues to grow.
In total, 1,481 buildings have been destroyed or damaged, out of which 1,193 were for residential use, 159 agricultural, 67 industrial, 34 for leisure and hospitality, 13 for public use, and 15 for other uses.

Curfew imposed for some coastal areas, airport closed

Update Mon 22 Nov 2021 17:56
Due to the generation of the acid steam at the sea entry of the lava and the hazards these pose to people (as well as animals and plants), the government imposed a curfew neighboring coastal regions.
The reaction of the salt water with the magma produces poisonous gases mixed into the steam, in particular hydrochloric acid (HCl).
The air quality in the Ariadne Valley has been poor on many days throughout the eruption, often exceeding health limits of pollution by gasses and fine particles.
Unfortunately, the wind is blowing the ash plume from the volcano to the eastern side of the island at the moment, disabling the airport which remains closed. This situation is likely to remain so for the next days as well.

Aerial video of the lava flow a few hours before reaching the ocean

Update Mon 22 Nov 2021 17:40
The active lava flow #7 this morning (image: IGME / Government of La Palma)
The active lava flow #7 this morning (image: IGME / Government of La Palma)
It's worth watching the drone video flying over the lava flow #7, which later at noon reached the sea, taken a few hours before (at 7.30 a.m.):

New lava flow reaches ocean, creating third lava delta

Update Mon 22 Nov 2021 17:28
Steaming lava fronts as they enter the Atlantic Ocean today at La Palma's newest active lava delta (image: RTVE)
Steaming lava fronts as they enter the Atlantic Ocean today at La Palma's newest active lava delta (image: RTVE)
The lava flow that had been advancing in the past days south of La Laguna has reached the ocean today at around noon local time, creating the third time, lava flows enter the sea and create a new delta.
It is said that the first lava block tumbled over the sea cliff at exactly 12 o'clock noon sharp... RTVE has a live stream of the active ocean entry:

La Palma volcano eruption update: activity decreases a bit, while lava flows continue to eat new land

Sun, 21 Nov 2021, 17:53
17:53 PM | BY: T
A small surge of lava from the westernmost summit vent this morning (image: casamartin.de)
A small surge of lava from the westernmost summit vent this morning (image: casamartin.de)
Latest lava flow map (image: IGME)
Latest lava flow map (image: IGME)
Ash emissions this morning from the cone (image: Canarias TV live stream)
Ash emissions this morning from the cone (image: Canarias TV live stream)
Volcanic tremor amplitude past 7 days (image: IGN)
Volcanic tremor amplitude past 7 days (image: IGN)
Lava flow activity has decreased a bit compared to yesterday and especially the day before yesterday. Observers reported seeing less lava on the upper and central part of the flow field. At the vents, a series of loud explosions occurred early in the morning, at around 4 a.m. local time.
Casa Martin's very lively and interesting journal about the eruption (La Palma Aktuell) describes how these explosions were followed by a surge of lava from the westernmost summit vent, located above the vent that usually was the main source of visible lava effusion and liquid spattering, and the source of most of the recent surface lava flows starting at the cone. This time, the lava exited from a higher point, then traveled downslope towards the other vent and from there into the "usual" channel that forms a ravine, and channel, breaching the western slope of the cone, and is likely one of the start areas of the complex lava tube system.
It can be speculated that a blockage was in place at the vents that triggered explosions and when the conduit leading up to the upper vent was freed, magma rose to this vent instead of the still blocked lower one.
Explosive activity was intermittent as in the past days, but during stronger phases, ash plumes were generated that still rose to 10,000 (3,000 m) altitude. This fluctuating activity seems to correlate with ups and downs of the volcanic tremor amplitude, which has remained at low values on average and on a decreasing trend today.
Further downslope, lava activity was also less. The most active (surface) flow is the one between La Laguna and Todoque, wedged between the earlier flows labelled #4 and #7 (see map). Its active fronts are currently located between and west of the Montagna La Laguna and the Montagna Todoque hills, where it has continued to advance over new land and covered additional 8 hectares since yesterday.
The total area of land covered by lava flows thus increased to 1058,95 hectares, according to the latest published data from the La Palma government who make daily surveillance and mapping flights of the area.

Ground deformation has decreased from its peak in the past days back to only 6 cm vertical uplift compared to pre-eruption level at the GNSS station north of Jedey station closest to the volcano. Gas emissions are still elevated, but also decreased compared to previous days. SO2 was estimated to be around 7-18,000 tons per day, while total diffuse CO2 emissions are around 2,200-2,600 tons daily.
Earthquakes remained about the same as in the past days, with a trend of decrease as well: in the last 24 hours, there were 3 quakes of magnitudes 4.0-4.3, 10 quakes between 3.0 and 4.0, and 49 quakes between 2.0 and 3.0.

All in all, the eruption continues a slowly declining path, but it is impossible to predict a timeframe when it might end.

Aerial images of the active lava flow fronts 20 Nov 11 a.m.

Update Sat 20 Nov 2021 19:53
The front of the likely largest active lava flow right now, in the area south of La Laguna destroying new land so far spared (image taken 20 Nov 11 a.m. by the government's surveillance drone)
The front of the likely largest active lava flow right now, in the area south of La Laguna destroying new land so far spared (image taken 20 Nov 11 a.m. by the government's surveillance drone)
The active surface flow about 300 m from the coast today, created by a breakout from the lava tube (part of same composite image taken on 20 Nov by the government surveillance drone)
The active surface flow about 300 m from the coast today, created by a breakout from the lava tube (part of same composite image taken on 20 Nov by the government surveillance drone)
The Government of La Palma regularly publishes surveillance data on the Open Data La Palma portal, a vast resource of data about the eruption and other "hot" topics on the island.
Today's imagery can be found here.

La Palma volcano eruption update: lava flows cover new land, change of wind forces airport to close

Sat, 20 Nov 2021, 19:42
19:42 PM | BY: T
Activity at the vent of La Palma today with moderate fountaining (image: Canarias TV live stream)
Activity at the vent of La Palma today with moderate fountaining (image: Canarias TV live stream)
Ground deformation at LP03 station (image: IGN)
Ground deformation at LP03 station (image: IGN)
Seismic signal at TBT station showing the increase in the morning today (image: IGN)
Seismic signal at TBT station showing the increase in the morning today (image: IGN)
Lava flow invading new untouched land yesterday 19 Nov (image: La Palma Open Data / Government of La Palma)
Lava flow invading new untouched land yesterday 19 Nov (image: La Palma Open Data / Government of La Palma)
The eruption continued at similar intensity as yesterday, although lava activity seems to have been a bit lower. There were alternating phases of fountaining and ash plumes rising to around 10,000 ft (3,000 m) and quieter phases with mainly steaming at the vents. A change of wind brought the ash fall again to the northeast side of the island, where the airport Mazo had to shut down.
The lava surge of the past days had created several new surface flows starting at or near the vents at the cone, forming a complex system of more or less parallel flows on top of the existing flow field. By yesterday, they had reached the area between La Laguna and Todoque. The northernmost one seems to be the most voluminous of them. Already yesterday, it had reached the so-far spared area between the two parallel lava arms between Montaña Laguna and Montaña Todoque, destroying additional land and structures. The other surface lava flows have so far remained on top of existing flows and are scattered in the area of Todoque.
Although lava activity seems to have been less today, the flow fronts continued to advance in the same area as yesterday, where the previously mentioned main lava flow continued to eat away slowly through areas of banana plantations.
Currently, no active lava flows are reaching the ocean. The tube system feeding this part of the lava flow field seems to have created a breakout about 500 m from the coast, where lava is flowing now on top the older lava and still has a few 100 m to go before reaching water again.
Volcanic tremor has been similar as during the previous days until the morning, when the seismic signal intensified again. In addition, ground inflation continued to pick up at the station closest to the volcano had has reached about 13 cm uplift today. Earthquake activity has picked up a bit as well. During the past 24 hours, there were 4 quakes of magnitudes 4.0-4.6 along with 14 quakes between 3.0 and 4.0, and 42 quakes between 2.0 and 3.0. Their locations remain the same as during the past two months,- clusters at around 10-15 km depth and 35-40 km depth under the central part of the volcano. The stronger quakes typically are detected in the deeper level.

Latest map of lava flows

Update Sat 20 Nov 2021 18:20
Extend of the lava flows as of 20 Nov 2021 (image: La Palma Open Data)
Extend of the lava flows as of 20 Nov 2021 (image: La Palma Open Data)
An interesting 3D-viewer of the eruption with updated data from today (20 Nov) was published by the government of La Palma on La Palma Open Data, alowing to visualize in 3D the current extend of the lava flows from the eruption:

La Palma volcano eruption update: new lava surge at the vent observed

Fri, 19 Nov 2021, 18:10
18:10 PM | BY: T
Activity at the vent of La Palma today showing continuous spattering or lava fountaining feeding a new flow (image: INVOLCAN / twitter)
Activity at the vent of La Palma today showing continuous spattering or lava fountaining feeding a new flow (image: INVOLCAN / twitter)
Current tremor amplitude (image: IGN)
Current tremor amplitude (image: IGN)
Ground deformation at LP03 station (image: IGN)
Ground deformation at LP03 station (image: IGN)
The eruption has shifted most of the visible activity to the area close to the vents again. Like yesterday, there were continuous low lava fountains with dense ash emissions, producing a plume reaching over 3,000 m altitude, as well as a new significant lava overflow from the vents. The ash and steam plume reached more than 3,000 m height today.
It seems that sections of the northern crater wall in the cone collapsed, allowing contained lava to surge out in a short flood, or that generally, more lava is arriving at the rims and able to overflow them. As in the previous cases this happened during the past weeks, a new voluminous lava flow traveled downhill from the cone and invaded new areas, destroying more buildings in its path.

It is not known or easy to say what exactly causes such lava surges. It could be the result of a temporary increase in magma supply or actually also be caused by a decrease of the amount of lava going into the tube system, possibly caused by some obstacles or blockages, forcing some of it to erupt onto the surface at the vent is unknown. Volcanic tremor remains similar as yesterday, but inflation has again increased a bit and totals around 9 cm compared to pre-eruption levels at the station closest to the eruption, which suggests that new magma has been accumulating beneath the surface (and yet has to come out).
Aarly this morning, a magnitude 5.1 quake at 1.08 a.m. woke up the island. Otherwise, the numbers of quakes has remained relatively low, with 10 quakes in total of magnitudes ranging from 3.0-4.0 (not considering 32 smaller quakes of magnitudes between 2.0-2.9).

Sulfur dioxide emissions increased to high values of around 24,000 tons per day. Along with the continued inflation and perhaps the occurrence of strong quakes in the magnitude 4-5 range might indicate that more magma is able to erupt in the near future.
It was reported that the roof of a sports hall collapsed yesterday under the load of ash, which had been increased by the recent rainfall.
Update Fri 19 Nov 2021 17:52
The latest lava flow map of the eruption, as of 18 Nov 11 a.m. (image: IGME)
The latest lava flow map of the eruption, as of 18 Nov 11 a.m. (image: IGME)

Tremor and quakes activity lower while lava fountains and strong ash emissions continue

Update Thu 18 Nov 2021 21:57
The active lava flow in the area between Montañas de Todoque and La Laguna (image: Canaries Government)
The active lava flow in the area between Montañas de Todoque and La Laguna (image: Canaries Government)
View of the eruption area from the port of Tazacorte this evening (image: TAD server, EU Commission)
View of the eruption area from the port of Tazacorte this evening (image: TAD server, EU Commission)
Tremor amplitude since the start of the eruption (image: IGN)
Tremor amplitude since the start of the eruption (image: IGN)
Current seismic signal at La Palma's TBT station (image: IGN)
Current seismic signal at La Palma's TBT station (image: IGN)
The increasing trend of activity at the volcano ended suddenly last night, when volcanic tremor abruptly fell to lower levels comparable to those before the surge of activity in the past two days. In tandem with the volcanic tremor (believed to correlate with magma supply rates), visible lava activity has been significantly lower today as well. Less lava was visible at the surface and the active fronts advanced less than had been feared.
Still, another 12 hectares of new land have been covered, mostly banana plantations, by the active flow (labelled #4 on official maps) that has been advancing between the cinder cones Montañas de Todoque and La Laguna, and was about 300 m from the sea earlier today.
Despite the falling tremor, explosive activity has been quite intense today, with phases of near-continuous lava fountains and strong ash emissions generating a plume that rose to over 3,000 m altitude and drifted in easterly and southeasterly directions as can be seen in the following videos posted by INVOLCAN:

Reported gas emissions have increased again, to very high values of 16,000-32,000 tons of SO2 per day, mainly directly from the vents, and 2,300-2,500 tons of CO2, mainly in the form of diffuse emissions from the soil. In the beginning of the eruption, up to 50,000 tons of SO2 were injected into the atmosphere per day.
Deformation of the ground continues to show a slow trend of deflation. Earthquakes decreased also by about 70 % in intensity and numbers compared to yesterday. During the past 24 hours, there were 3 quakes of magnitudes 4.3-4.6 as well as 33 quakes between 3.0-3.9 (while there were more than 100 yesterday).

Overall, the eruption continues to follow a very slowly declining trend, but seems far from over...
Update Wed 17 Nov 2021 19:34
The latest lava flow map (but not yet showing the advance of lava flow #4 today) (image: IGME)
The latest lava flow map (but not yet showing the advance of lava flow #4 today) (image: IGME)

La Palma volcano eruption update: eruptive and seismic activity increase

Wed, 17 Nov 2021, 19:31
19:31 PM | BY: T
Ash emission from La Palma today (image: Rubén López / @rubenlodi / twitter)
Ash emission from La Palma today (image: Rubén López / @rubenlodi / twitter)
Surface lava flows near the vents (image: Canarias TV webcam)
Surface lava flows near the vents (image: Canarias TV webcam)
Seismic trace of TBT station of the quake (black peak; image: IGN)
Seismic trace of TBT station of the quake (black peak; image: IGN)
Volcanic tremor amplitude past 7 days (image: IGN)
Volcanic tremor amplitude past 7 days (image: IGN)
Time vs depth of quakes under La Palma during the past days
Time vs depth of quakes under La Palma during the past days
After almost 2 months of continuous eruption, there are no signs it might end soon. On the contrary, the activity - both external and internal (seismic) - has continued to intensify today again, with strong ash emissions during extended phases and more surface lava flows near the vent as well as downslope. Volcanic tremor has been increasing, suggesting that the rate of magma flowing towards and erupting at the surface also has become higher again.
This new surge of lava reactivated the flow front that stalled between Montaña Todoque and La Laguna. Other flows are active on top of the lava field near the vents, while the bulk of lava seems to be reaching and increasing the new combined lava delta at the coast.
Video of the activity today:

Perhaps most notably, the earthquake activity has drastically jumped up during the past 24 hours. There were more than 100 quakes above magnitude 3 in total, mostly at around 12 km depth, but also two larger quakes of magnitudes of 4.7 and 4.8 at 7.17 a.m. and 12.33 p.m., respectively, both at around 38 km depth.
On the other hand, estimated gas emissions have decreased to 2,000-3,000 tons of SO2 yesterday and 2,000-2,500 tons of CO2. Ground deformation has remained similar as in the past days, but also decreased a bit.

La Palma volcano eruption update: activity intensifies again

Tue, 16 Nov 2021, 19:53
19:53 PM | BY: T
View of the eruption on La Palma this evening from the port of Tazacorte (image: TAD server, EU Commission)
View of the eruption on La Palma this evening from the port of Tazacorte (image: TAD server, EU Commission)
Seismic recording of TBT station today (image: IGN)
Seismic recording of TBT station today (image: IGN)
Weak lava fountaining this afternoon (image: Canarias TV live stream)
Weak lava fountaining this afternoon (image: Canarias TV live stream)
Volcanic tremor amplitude past 7 days (image: IGN)
Volcanic tremor amplitude past 7 days (image: IGN)
The eruption has intensified today compared to the previous days. Periods of small lava fountaining and moderate ash emissions were seen at the summit vents today.
In the morning, the ash plume rose to 8,000 ft (2.4 km) altitude and drifted to the east coast, forcing the airport to temporarily close its operations.
Lava effusion remains stable and at least 3 lava flows are active at the growing lava delta, where the new addition at the Los Guirres beach has now merged with the previous one. Its size is currently around 40 hectares - new land extending the coast line of the island.
Volcanic tremor intensity has increased a bit, which suggests that magma flow rates also have increased. This again matches with the visible increase of activity today.
Ground deformation remains more or less stable with no clear trend. Earthquakes continue at similar frequency and sizes as in the past days. During the past 24 hours, there was only quake of magnitude 4.2, along with 9 quakes between 3.0 and 3.9, and 40 quakes between 2.0 and 2.9.
The only reliable conclusion that can be made is that the eruption seems far from over.

La Palma volcano eruption update: explosive and effusive activity continue at stable levels

Mon, 15 Nov 2021, 21:36
21:36 PM | BY: T
Satellite infrared image of the western part of La Palma showing the hot lava field and the eruption plume (image: Sentinal Hub)
Satellite infrared image of the western part of La Palma showing the hot lava field and the eruption plume (image: Sentinal Hub)
View of the eruption from the port of Tazacorte this evening (image: TAD server, EU Commission webcam)
View of the eruption from the port of Tazacorte this evening (image: TAD server, EU Commission webcam)
Ash emission this morning (image: Canarias TV live stream)
Ash emission this morning (image: Canarias TV live stream)
Volcanic tremor amplitude past 7 days (image: IGN)
Volcanic tremor amplitude past 7 days (image: IGN)
Current seismic signal LP01 station (image: IGN)
Current seismic signal LP01 station (image: IGN)
Time vs depth of quakes under La Palma during the past days
Time vs depth of quakes under La Palma during the past days
The eruption remains stable without significant changes in intensity. This morning, explosive activity at the vents was stronger again, producing ash plumes that rose to 8,000 ft (2.4 km) altitude and drifting west over the ocean. Lava continues to flow towards the ocean.
Sometimes, heat convection and winds created small heat "tornados" over the hot lava flow field, similar as dust devils in the desert, as the following video shows:
Strombolian explosions and lava spattering occur during phases, and can be seen especially well at night. Surface lava flows are active on the slopes of the cone, as sometimes lava overspills from the lower vents, although most of it continues to go directly into the tube system to feed the active flow downslope near the ocean. Only minor flow tongues actually touched the water today, as can be seen in this video from the Coast Guard:

Volcanic tremor has stayed more or less stable, with typically short-lived fluctuations, but overall at levels comparable to the past 7 days, during which it has been showing a very slow decreasing trend. Earthquake activity also remains at similar (comparably low) levels as in the past days. During the latest 24 hours, there was only one quake of magnitude 4.4 along with 9 quakes between 3.0 and 3.9.
All in all, there is no sign the eruption might be ending soon.

Eruptive activity continues, but at lower levels now

Update Sun 14 Nov 2021 17:51
Steaming from the main vent of the eruption on La Palma this afternoon (image: Canarias TV live stream)
Steaming from the main vent of the eruption on La Palma this afternoon (image: Canarias TV live stream)
Latest map of the lava flows (image: info.igme.es)
Latest map of the lava flows (image: info.igme.es)
Current seismic signal at La Palma's TBT station showing the larger quakes today (image: IGN)
Current seismic signal at La Palma's TBT station showing the larger quakes today (image: IGN)
Depth vs time of quakes under La Palma
Depth vs time of quakes under La Palma
The volcano continues to erupt, but activity remains lower compared to the past weeks. No significant explosive activity has occurred at the vents today, and lava effusion seems to have dropped as well, as less lava was seen reaching the new ocean delta today and only minor progress at few active fronts. The number of destroyed or damaged buildings increased to 2616.
Tremor is at similar levels as yesterday, but has been more fluctuating, sometimes dropping to very low values. This should suggest that magma supply is at times interrupted now although it is far from certain that this is the case. As the lava field is growing above an extended system of tubes, much lava can be stored in it without being easily visible.
New lava flow breakouts from the sides of the field could still occur any time easily and cause more destruction.

Ground deformation has decreased over the past days to only 6 cm uplift, but picked up a bit today again to reach 8 cm. Earthquakes remain comparably low in numbers. During the past 24 hours, there 2 quakes of magnitude 4.5 and 4.7, both widely felt on the island, as well as 8 quakes between magnitudes 3.0-3.9 and 30 quakes between 2.0-2.9. Note that as seismic tremor decreases, instruments can now again pick up smaller quakes, which before had been hidden inside the strong noise-like tremor signal. This effect artificially increases the numbers.

First victim of the eruption, man dies as roof collapses under him

Update Sun 14 Nov 2021 11:28
Ash covered streets and houses in La Palma (image: El Time)
Ash covered streets and houses in La Palma (image: El Time)
The eruption claimed its first (indirect) fatality yesterday. A 72-year old man was killed while cleaning his roof from the heavy load of ash when the roof collapsed. He had a special permit to enter the restricted area to look after his home.

La Palma volcano eruption update: stable activity, lava continues to flow into the ocean

Sat, 13 Nov 2021, 17:32
17:32 PM | BY: T
Lava flows at the sea cliff at La Palma (image: INVOLCAN / twitter)
Lava flows at the sea cliff at La Palma (image: INVOLCAN / twitter)
Latest lava flow map (image: IGME)
Latest lava flow map (image: IGME)
Current seismic signal LP01 station (image: IGN)
Current seismic signal LP01 station (image: IGN)
Activity continues with no significant changes, with similar intensity as during the past days, while on a very gradually decreasing trajectory. The eruption is now mainly effusive (i.e. producing lava flows). At the vents, explosive activity has been only intermittent and comparably weak recently, although still able to produce plumes rising to up to 2-3 km during phases of more intense activity such as this morning.
Most of the time, however, only dense steam plumes rise from the craters, while fluid, degassed magma continues to arrive and flow through a tube system to arrive at the new active sea entry, where a second delta is now growing. Watch some videos taken by staff from IGN:

Earthquakes slow down
Volcanic tremor is stable, at similar levels as during the past days with some increase overall today. Seismic activity has calmed down a lot, with only 10 quakes above magnitude 3 recorded in 24 hours. However, these include a strong quake of magnitude 5.0 occurred this morning shortly before 7 a.m., again in the deeper layer at 38 km depth.
Ground deformation continues to show a weak trend of deflation. All in all, the eruption does not seem to be ending soon, but likely is in its long tailing-off phase.

Magnitude 5 quake shakes island early in the morning

Update Thu 11 Nov 2021 09:54
Seismic signal of this morning's magnitude 5 quake at La Palma (image: IGN)
Seismic signal of this morning's magnitude 5 quake at La Palma (image: IGN)
Steaming from the main vent this morning (image: Canarias TV live stream)
Steaming from the main vent this morning (image: Canarias TV live stream)
Current tremor amplitude past 7 days (IGN)
Current tremor amplitude past 7 days (IGN)
A magnitude 5.0 quake hit 36 km below the island this morning at 3.37 a.m. and was felt by thousands of people.
On the other hand, shallower quakes have become less in numbers and magnitude with "only" 75 quakes in total during the latest 24 hours.
The eruption continues but has been decreasing in visual and instrumental intensity: at the vent, explosions and ash emissions have become smaller and rarer, while lava effusion continues. Most of the time, only a dense steam plume is rising from the main crater.
Volcanic tremor is similar as yesterday and on a (very) gradually decreasing trajectory. The same is true for ground deformation and reported values of gas emissions.
The new lava sea entry at Los Guirres seems no longer or much less active than yesterday this morning, judging from the webcam views, but this needs confirmation. Here's an impressive video from yesterday's activity:
Still, it is impossible to predict with certainty that the eruption is approaching a near end or just going through a low in activity and could restart again more vigorously, or could go on at reduced level for a very long time.
All options are on the table, but in any case, the first scenario might seem more likely, i.e. that the eruption might be ending rather sooner (few weeks from now?) than later.
Update Wed 10 Nov 2021 22:36
IGN published a video of the new lava flow at the Playa los Guirres:

Earthquakes increase again, especially at depth

Update Wed 10 Nov 2021 17:11
Current seismic signal at La Palma's TBT station showing the larger quakes today (image: IGN)
Current seismic signal at La Palma's TBT station showing the larger quakes today (image: IGN)
Depth vs time of quakes under La Palma
Depth vs time of quakes under La Palma
Current tremor amplitude past 7 days (IGN)
Current tremor amplitude past 7 days (IGN)
The number of quakes under the island has increased significantly again during the latest 24 hours, in particular the occurrence of quakes in the deeper layer around 35 km, where two shocks of magnitudes 4.2 and 4.8 were recorded today, at 11.10 a.m. and 1.23 p.m., respectively.
Both quakes were felt widely on the whole island, in particular the magnitude 4.8 event, which is one of the strongest in the current seismic and volcanic crisis. As to their meaning, it can only be speculated upon whether they signify a potential re-supply of magma at depth or perhaps the opposite, i.e. internal adjustments after magma has left storage areas below. A better interpretation of these events is likely only to follow after more time has passed and other data has been collected to study the events from an afterwards perspective.
In the meanwhile, volcanic tremor continues to follow its slowly decreasing trend as yesterday and is low when compared to previous weeks, but still significant, in tandem with continued lava effusion that resulted in the spectacular lava flows falling over the sea cliff today mentioned in the previous update.

Incredible video of glowing lava falls overflowing cliff

Update Wed 10 Nov 2021 06:35
Glowing lava falls overflowed the cliff reaching the sea delta (image: @mondoterremoti/twitter)
Glowing lava falls overflowed the cliff reaching the sea delta (image: @mondoterremoti/twitter)
A mesmerizing video footage of the new lava front that overflowed the cliff and reached the Los Guirres beach has been recorded today.
The video below depicts glowing lava falls entering the existing older sea delta after the new lava flow detached from the southwestern margin today.

Latest map of lava flows

Update Tue 09 Nov 2021 19:21
Latest map of the lava flows, showing the advancing flow nr 2 which has reached the sea today (image: info.igme.es)
Latest map of the lava flows, showing the advancing flow nr 2 which has reached the sea today (image: info.igme.es)

Lava flows reach coast again, enter ocean at Playa Los Guirres

Update Tue 09 Nov 2021 18:20
Lava flow reaching the beach of Los Guirres today (image: INVOLCAN)
Lava flow reaching the beach of Los Guirres today (image: INVOLCAN)
Current seismic signal at La Palma's TBT station (image: IGN)
Current seismic signal at La Palma's TBT station (image: IGN)
The eruption continues with little changes overall. At the vent, intermittent ash-rich lava fountains and strombolian-type explosions produce steam and ash plumes that continue to rise to approx. 8,000 ft (2.4 km) altitude and drift southwest over the Atlantic.
Lava effusion remains significant, likely at similar levels as during the past days, because the volcanic tremor signal and deformation data show no significant changes. It may not seem as abundant mainly because most of the lava erupted at the vents is flowing directly into a tube system and aliments various parts of the flow field, both by inflating it and creating new surface flows or outbreaks, on top of existing flows or as new outbreaks detaching from its margins.
While the latter lava flow activity has been less frequent in the past days and made for hopes the eruption might be "getting tired", it has changed today: a new flow front detached from the southwestern margin and reached the beach of Los Guirres, south of the existing older sea delta, at 10.50 a.m. local time today. Certainly, it is at good news at least in that the lava flowing into the sea is not damaging so-far untouched land...
Here are some videos of this activity:


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