Lastarria volcano

Updated: Jul 5, 2022 02:02 GMT - Refresh
stratovolcano 5697 m / 18,691 ft
Northern Chile, Bolivia and Argentina (South America), -25.17°S / -68.5°W
Current status: normal or dormant (1 out of 5)

Lastarria is a stratovolcano on the Argentina/Chile border. The volcano contains 5 nested summit craters. The youngest part of the volcano is a lava dome overlapping the northern crater.
A large prehistoric debris avalanche deposit is located on the SE flank and younger deposits of pyroclastic flows form an apron around the the northern base of the volcano.
There are no known historical eruptions, but the young morphology of some deposits suggest that Lastarria has been active during historical time. There is intense fumarolic activity on the rim and flanks of the northern summit crater and its NW flank, and sulfur flows have occurred by melting of extensive sulfur deposits in the summit region.

Show interactive Map
[hide map] [enlarge]
Typical eruption style: explosive
Lastarria volcano eruptions: unknown, but probably in historic times
Lastest nearby earthquakes: No recent earthquakes

Background

Negriales lava field is a large andesitic-dacitic flow on the western flanks and was erupted from a single vent on the SW-flank of Lastarria volcano.
The petrography of the Lastarria complex ranges from pyroxene-rich andesites to pyroxene-amphibole bearing dacites.

Inflation of the Lastarria-Cordon del Azufre complex
Satellite radar measurements have shown that an area of 45x37 km of the Lastarria-Cordon del Azufre complexis undergoing long-term wavelength cycles of ground deformation (inflation and deflation) at maximum rates of 2.5 cm/year. It is believed that this geothermal activity is caused by a pressurized, and partially sealed fluid system similar, but smaller to the very active hydrothermal systems at Yellowstone, Long Valley caldera, or the Campi Flegrei in Italy.

Lastarria debris avalanche
A pre-historic flank collapse occurred on the SE flank of Lastarria volcano. The collapse generated a debris avalanche that climbed and surpassed an older 125 m high scoria cone east of Lastarria. The avalanche had an unusually high velocity of 300 km/hr. Near Lastarria, the detached mass was fluidized and disintegrated, unlike the historic 1980 avalanche of Mt St Helens, which consisted of large coherent blocks, composed of parts of the original mountain flank (interleaved lavas and pyroclastic layers).

Sulfur flows
Lastarria volcano is one of the few locations in the world where sulfur flows have been documents (another example with recent flows is Ijen volcano, East Java). Sulfur usually flows as a Newtonian fluid, but the presence of gas bubbles and crystals at the Lastarria sulfur flows indicated it may have behaved as a Bingham fluid.

---
Sources:
- Smithsonian / GVP Lastarria volcano information
- José A. Naranjo (1992) "Chemistry and petrological evolution of the Lastarria volcanic complex in the north Chilean Andes", Geol. Magazine v 129, pp 723-740
- Froger et al (2007) "Two scales of inflation at Lastarria-Cordon del Azufre volcanic complex, central Andes, revealed from ASAR-ENVISAT interferometric data", Earth and Planetary Science Letters, V. 255 (1-2), pp 148-163
- José Antonio Naranjo and Peter Francis (1987) "High velocity debris avalanche at Lastarria volcano in the north Chilean Andes", Bull. Volc., v. 49 (2), pp 509-514


See also: Sentinel hub | Landsat 8 | NASA FIRMS
Try our free app!
Volcanoes & Earthquakes - new app for Android
Android | iOS version

More on VolcanoDiscovery

Why is there advertising on this site?
Support us - Help us upgrade our services!
We truly love working to bring you the latest volcano and earthquake data from around the world. Maintaining our website and our free apps does require, however, considerable time and resources.
We need financing to increase hard- and software capacity as well as support our editor team. We're aiming to achieve uninterrupted service wherever an earthquake or volcano eruption unfolds, and your donations can make it happen! Every donation will be highly appreciated. If you find the information useful and would like to support our team in integrating further features, write great content, and in upgrading our soft- and hardware, please make a donation (PayPal or Online credit card payment).

Planned features:
  • Improved multilanguage support
  • Tsunami alerts
  • Faster responsiveness
Thanks to your past donations, these features have been added recently:
  • Earthquake archive from 1900 onwards
  • Detailed quake stats
  • Additional seismic data sources
Download and Upgrade the Volcanoes & Earthquakes app to get one of the fastest seismic and volcano alerts online:
Android | IOS
Thank you!
Sources: VolcanoDiscovery / VolcanoAdventures and other sources as noted.
Use of material: Most text and images on our websites are owned by us. Re-use is generally not permitted without authorization. Contact us for licensing rights.
Home | Travel | Destinations | Volcanoes | Photos | Earthquakes | About | Glossary | News | Contact | Privacy | Imprint | EN | DE | EL | ES | FR | IT | RU
Follow us:Follow us on facebookFollow us on InstagramFollow us on TwitterVisit our Youtube channel