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Leonard Range volcano

stratovolcano 1080 m / 3,543 ft
Mindanao, Philippines, 7.38°N / 126.05°E
Current status: normal or dormant (1 out of 5) | Reports
Leonard Range volcano books
Typical eruption style: explosive
Leonard Range volcano eruptions: 120 AD ± 100 years (radiocarbon dated)
TimeMag. / DepthDistanceLocation
Sat, 19 Sep 2020
Sat, 19 Sep 13:37 UTCM 2.4 / 3 km9 km015 Km N 14° W of Maragusan (San Mariano) (Davao De Oro), Philippines
Thu, 17 Sep 2020
Thu, 17 Sep 19:30 UTCM 2.4 / 26 km27 km009 Km N 18° E of Pantukan (Davao De Oro), Philippines
Sun, 13 Sep 2020
Sun, 13 Sep 22:16 UTCM 4.9 / 154 km22 km76 km ENE of Davao, Philippines
Sun, 13 Sep 17:52 UTCM 2.4 / 14 km18 km006 Km N 77° E of Mawab (Davao De Oro) (Philippines)
Wed, 2 Sep 2020
Wed, 2 Sep 09:25 UTCM 2.1 / 17 km22 km025 Km N 60° W of Manay (Davao Oriental) (Philippines)
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Leonard Range (also known as Leonard Kniazeff) volcano is an andesitic-dacitic volcanic complex with a 4x5 km caldera. It is located east of Davao Gulf in SE Mindanao, east of the major N-S-trending Philippine Fault and belongs to the East Mindanao Arc.
The last activity of Leonard Range probably occurred about 1800 years ago, indicated by radiocarbon dating of charred wood found in a pyroclastic flow deposit on the edge of the caldera.
The caldera contains Lake Leonard known for its abundance of fish species and as a surviving habitat of the rare Philippine crocodile.
Several thermal areas and solfataras occur at Leonard Range.


The earliest known activity at the Leonard Range was 1.1 million years ago. A series of lava domes were built in the area around Lake Leonard from about 290,000 years ago. The latest epoch of activity occurred during the past 20,000 years and produced the Paloc pyroclastic deposits during an eruption between 6,000-1,800 years ago, which also formed the caldera.
The Leonard Range (or North Davao) area is the site of a geothermal exploration program.
Manat thermal area is located north of Lake Leonard, solfataras occur its SW rim, and active solfataras, fumaroles, and hot springs are found in the Amacan-Gopod thermal area south of the lake.

Lake Leonard is located inside the caldera and contains freshwater with fish species including Anguila pacifica, Clarias batrachus, Glossogobius giurus, Ophicephalus striatus and Tilapia mossambica. It is also home to the the endangered Philippine crocodile Crocodylus mindorensis which is found at the lake during the breeding season in July-September. (Source: Haribon Foundation, summarized in Lake Leonard).

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See also: Sentinel hub | Landsat 8

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