Oshima-Oshima volcano

stratovolcano 737 m / 2,418 ft
Hokkaido, Japan, 41.51°N / 139.37°E
Current status: normal or dormant (1 out of 5)

Oshima-Oshima volcano (渡島大島 in Japanese) forms a small uninhabited 4 km wide island in the Japan Sea island 55 km west of the SW tip of Hokkaido in northern Japan. Oshima-Oshima's eruption in 1741 caused a tsunami that killed almost 1500 people.

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Typical eruption style: Explosive
Oshima-Oshima volcano eruptions: 1790, 1786(?), 1759, 1741-42

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Background

Oshima-Oshima is the small emergent summit of two overlapping basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcanoes: Higashi-yama at the east end of the island is cut by a 2-km-wide caldera covered on its west side by Nishi-yama volcano.
The western cone partially collapsed during an eruption in 1741, creating a large horseshoe-shaped caldera breached to the north and extending from the summit down to the sea floor at the base of the volcano. This event produced a mostly submarine debris avalanche that traveled 16 km distance, and triggered a large tsunami. The tsunami devastated the coasts of Hokkaido, western Honshu, and as far as Korea, causing nearly 1500 fatalities.
The 1741 eruption was the largest in historical time at Oshima-Oshima and ended with the construction of a basaltic cinder cone at the head of the breached caldera. No eruptions have occurred since the last eruption in 1790, but seismic unrest under the volcano occurred in 1996.


See also: Sentinel hub | Landsat 8
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