BackgroundThe broad 1.1-km-wide, flat-floored Alun-Alun crater truncates the summit of Papandayan, and Gunung Puntang to the north gives the volcano a twin-peaked appearance. Several episodes of collapse have given the volcano an irregular profile and produced debris avalanches that have impacted lowland areas beyond the volcano. A sulfur-encrusted fumarole field occupies historically active Kawah Mas ("Golden Crater").
After its first historical eruption in 1772, in which collapse of the NE flank produced a catastrophic debris avalanche that destroyed 40 villages and killed nearly 3000 persons, only small phreatic eruptions had occurred prior to an explosive eruption that began in November 2002.
Dry mud pool (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
A drying-out pond containing ill-looking red water inside the crater of Papandayan volcano. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Green acid lake in Papandayan's crater (West Java) (Photo: Dietmar)
Red waters of a small creek from Papandayan's crater (Photo: Dietmar)
Papandayan volcano tours:From Krakatau to Bali (16-day study and photo tour to Java, Indonesia)Volcanoes of Java (17-day walking and trekking tour on Java)
See also: Sentinel hub | Landsat 8 | NASA FIRMS