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Volcano Calendar 2019
: We're proud to present our 2019 volcano calendar: 13 different and attractive images of volcanoes, volcanic landscapes and phenomena taken during volcano tours over the past few years.
: "One of the most eye-catching guides to the world’s volcanoes ever published.
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The Volcano Adventure Guide
: Excellent information and background for anyone wishing to visit active volcanoes safely and enjoyably. The book presents guidelines to visiting 42 different volcanoes around the world.
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Illustrated Volcano Glossary
Basaltic columnar-jointed lava (Iceland)
The most common type of volcanic rock, with a relatively low silica content and typically erupted at shield volcanoes.
Basalt is the usually hard and black volcanic rock formed from (liquid) balsalitc lava. Balsaltic lava contains less than about 52 percent silica (SiO2) by weight. Because of its low silica content, it has a low viscosity (resistance to flow). Therefore, basaltic lava can quickly and easily flow more than 20 km from a vent. The low viscosity typically allows volcanic gases to escape without genera... -> See whole entry
Base surge deposits from the great Minoan eruption on Santorini (ca. 1613 BC)
Base surges are ground hugging, fast outward moving and turbulent, dilute clouds of gas and ash. They result from water magma interactions (violent steam explosions). During the 1965 eruption of Taal volcano (Philippines), such base surges were first observed. Some of them traveled 4 km and killed 189 people. Base surges were first identified during ocean nuclear weapons explosions in the Pacific.... -> See whole entry
Volcanology: (volcanic) block
Large ballistically ejected block on Santorini (Greece)
Volcanic blocks are solidified rock fragments greater than 64 mm in diameter. Blocks commonly are ejected during explosive eruptions and consist of older pieces of the volcano's edifice, e.g. parts of the conduit, lava domes or older lava flows.
During violent eruptions, blocks of up to several meter size can be thrown to several km distance. For example, during the Minoan eruption (ca. 1613 BC) of the Santorini volcano in Greece, meter-sized blocks were thrown to up to 7 km horizontal distance and impacted violently into the ground, some of them destroying houses of ancient settlements. The time some of these blocks spent on their trajec... -> See whole entry
Related keywords (1): bomb
Volcanology: volcanic bomb
Large bomb ejected from Etna volcano's SE crater.
Ejected fragments of fresh magma larger than 64 mm in diameter, often shaped aerodynamically during their flight.
Volcanic bombs are lava fragments larger than 64 mm in diameter that were ejected while still viscous and partially molten. Many bombs acquire rounded aerodynamic shapes during their travel through the air. Volcanic bombs include breadcrust bombs, ribbon bombs, spindle bombs (with twisted ends), spheroidal bombs, and "cow-dung" bombs. -> See whole entry
Breadcrust bomb, ca. 50 cm long, from Lokon volcano (N-Sulawesi, Indonesia)
Perfectly shaped breadcrust bomb from Nea Kameni, Santorini (Greece)
Volcanic bomb with a cracked surface, similar to bread, caused by the slow expansion of the interior gas bubbles while cooling.
A breadcrust bomb is a volcanic bomb with a cracked and checkered surface, sometimes resembling the surface of a loaf of bread. The cracks develop when the outer surface of a partially molten lava fragment cools to form a brittle surface and then subsequently cracks as the hot interior expands due to the continued growth of gas bubbles. -> See whole entry
Related keywords (1): bomb
More on VolcanoDiscovery:
Sakurajima volcano photos
: One of the world's most active volcanoes, Sakurajima on Japan's Kyushu Island is famous for its frequent vulcanian explosions, often accompanied by eruption lightning.
Kelut volcano photos
: A new lava dome grew inside the crater lake during the effusive eruption in late 2007, replacing most of the lake. Watch the birth of a new mountain!
Books about Volcanoes
: A selection of great books about volcanoes and volcanism, grouped into sections of different reading level interest.
Dukono volcano photos
: Dukono on Halmahera in Indonesia has been in permanent activity for years, often producing ash plumes that drift around the northern part of the island and have become normality.