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12-30 Aug 2019: Kamchatka - Land of Colors - Kamchatka (Russia)
13-29 Aug 2019: Volcanoes of Java - Java (Indonesia)
1-19 Sep 2019: Kamchatka - Land of Colors - Kamchatka (Russia)
3-18 Sep 2019: From Krakatau to Bali - Java (Indonesia)
21-28 Sep 2019: Pearl of the Aegean - Santorini - Santorini Island (Greece)
12-20 Oct 2019: From Stromboli to Etna - Eolian Islands + Etna volcano (Italy)
2-18 Nov 2019: Volcanoes and Spices - N-Sulawesi + Halmahera (Indonesia)
17-21 Nov 2019: Krakatau Volcano Special - Krakatau volcano (Indonesia)
9-17 May 2020: From Stromboli to Etna - Eolian Islands + Etna volcano (Italy)
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Illustrated Volcano Glossary

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base surge

Volcanology
Base surge deposits from the great Minoan eruption on Santorini (ca. 1613 BC)
Base surge deposits from the great Minoan eruption on Santorini (ca. 1613 BC)
Base surges are ground hugging, fast outward moving and turbulent, dilute clouds of gas and ash. They result from water magma interactions (violent steam explosions). During the 1965 eruption of Taal volcano (Philippines), such base surges were first observed. Some of them traveled 4 km and killed 189 people. Base surges were first identified during ocean nuclear weapons explosions in the Pacific.

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pyroclastic flow
 

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