Illustrated Volcano Glossary

block

Volcanology: (volcanic) block
Large ballistically ejected block on Santorini (Greece)
Large ballistically ejected block on Santorini (Greece)
Volcanic blocks are solidified rock fragments greater than 64 mm in diameter. Blocks commonly are ejected during explosive eruptions and consist of older pieces of the volcano's edifice, e.g. parts of the conduit, lava domes or older lava flows.
During violent eruptions, blocks of up to several meter size can be thrown to several km distance. For example, during the Minoan eruption (ca. 1613 BC) of the Santorini volcano in Greece, meter-sized blocks were thrown to up to 7 km horizontal distance and impacted violently into the ground, some of them destroying houses of ancient settlements. The time some of these blocks spent on their trajectories can be easily calculated to be around 30-40 seconds, while they have traveled at speeds of typically 200-300 m/s.

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