A horse rider in front of the hindi sanctuary in the Tengger caldera. (Photo: Tobias Schorr)
More on VolcanoDiscovery:
Videos taken during our volcano expeditions and tours, showing eruptions, volcanic phenomena and more.
: A third tectonic setting where volcanism occurs is believed to be the result of mantle plumes and not directly related to plate boundaries. So called hot spot volcanoes fall into this category.
Ibu volcano photos
: Ibu in Halmahera is one of the most active, but rarely visited volcanoes in Indonesia. A spectacular lava dome is growing inside the volcano's breached crater, with frequent explosions.
Divergent plate boundaries in oceans
: Two ocean plates move apart from each other. Hot upwelling mantle material forms magmas that continuously produce new oceanic crust. An ocean widens.