Kilauea volcano (Hawaii): Sep 2016 tour - life returns to lava

Life returns slowly after destruction by lava flows. In this area, 30 years ago, there was dense rain forest until it was invaded by lava flows from the early stages of the Pu'u 'O'o rift zone eruption.
Dead, half-burnt tree trunks and branches still lie around, some having left molds in the lava.
Among the first plants to colonize the barren lava desert are small ferns whose green stands out from the dark or silvery pahoehoe textures.
Remains of devastated rain forest in the rainy evening twilight. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Remains of devastated rain forest in the rainy evening twilight. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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Small green ferns start to recover the terrain. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Small green ferns start to recover the terrain. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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A tree had fallen onto the cooled lava after its base had burnt away. When it fell, the surface of the lava had cooled already enough not to burn it. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
A tree had fallen onto the cooled lava after its base had burnt away. When it fell, the surface of t... [info]
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Ferns in cracks of pahoehoe lava. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Ferns in cracks of pahoehoe lava. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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Pillow-shaped pahoehoe with small ferns. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Pillow-shaped pahoehoe with small ferns. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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Group of ferns (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Group of ferns (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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Green dots on the gray-silvery pahoehoe. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Green dots on the gray-silvery pahoehoe. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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A crack through ropy pahoehoe with ferns finding shelter inside. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
A crack through ropy pahoehoe with ferns finding shelter inside. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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Different surface textures and colors - where the glassy crust of the lava flow is still intact, the flow is silvery. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Different surface textures and colors - where the glassy crust of the lava flow is still intact, the... [info]
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The ropy structures also provide suitable root holds for the ferns. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
The ropy structures also provide suitable root holds for the ferns. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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Lava surfaces (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Lava surfaces (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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It will still take a long time until new rain forest grows here... (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
It will still take a long time until new rain forest grows here... (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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Regular cracking patterns (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Regular cracking patterns (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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Ferns inside crack. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Ferns inside crack. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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Ferns inside ropes of pahoehoe (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Ferns inside ropes of pahoehoe (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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Cast of a tree trunk that has burned away. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Cast of a tree trunk that has burned away. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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