Krakatau volcano (Indonesia) Nov 2018 eruption: continuous activity on 19 Nov

At the end of the paroxysm during 17-19 Nov, we spent several hours on the boat in about 700 m straight-line distance from the crater, to observe near-continuous explosive activity in the afternoon and evening of 19 Nov. It ranged from weak fountaining to mild to strong strombolian explosions with or without significant ash emissions:
While the lava flow to the sea is no longer actively fed, explosive activity continues at the summit vent. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
While the lava flow to the sea is no longer actively fed, explosive activity continues at the summit... [info]
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Most activity could be described as typical strombolian. Here, a small one with little ash only ejects incandescent bombs a few tens of meters above the vent. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Most activity could be described as typical strombolian. Here, a small one with little ash only ejec... [info]
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Most eruptions are much richer in ash. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Most eruptions are much richer in ash. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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The erupted lava is visibly red even in daylight, suggesting that the magma column is still very high in the conduit. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
The erupted lava is visibly red even in daylight, suggesting that the magma column is still very hig... [info]
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Individual explosions occur at intervals of few seconds to 1-2 minutes at most. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Individual explosions occur at intervals of few seconds to 1-2 minutes at most. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer... [info]
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A small ash-rich explosion follows immediately after another one. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
A small ash-rich explosion follows immediately after another one. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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The more ash-rich explosions have typically less incandescent material with them and tend to be more violent (with a few exceptions). (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
The more ash-rich explosions have typically less incandescent material with them and tend to be more... [info]
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Most explosions are more or less noisy, with typical degassing and explosion sounds, sometimes loud booms. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Most explosions are more or less noisy, with typical degassing and explosion sounds, sometimes loud ... [info]
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The explosive activity generates a continuous ash plume. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
The explosive activity generates a continuous ash plume. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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A moderately strong explosion throws many incandescent lava fragments to both sides. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
A moderately strong explosion throws many incandescent lava fragments to both sides. (Photo: Tom Pfe... [info]
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Dust from impacts on the steep slope and merges with the ash plume. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Dust from impacts on the steep slope and merges with the ash plume. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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Ash plume with a new pulse starting at the bottom. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Ash plume with a new pulse starting at the bottom. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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In fact, explosions with only little ash are quite rare and occur in phases lasting a few minutes. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
In fact, explosions with only little ash are quite rare and occur in phases lasting a few minutes. (... [info]
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The ash plume penetrates the white steam plume rising from the lava ocean entry at the coast. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
The ash plume penetrates the white steam plume rising from the lava ocean entry at the coast. (Photo... [info]
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A rounded billowing ash plume generated by a stronger explosion. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
A rounded billowing ash plume generated by a stronger explosion. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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Strombolian activity, almost pulsating low fountains, occurs at the base of the ash column. The following two images are taken seconds apart from this one. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Strombolian activity, almost pulsating low fountains, occurs at the base of the ash column. The foll... [info]
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Liquid spatter being thrown to the southern crater rim. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Liquid spatter being thrown to the southern crater rim. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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Thousands of incandescent bombs landing on the upper slope. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Thousands of incandescent bombs landing on the upper slope. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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From an upwind direction, the strombolian activity can be best seen. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
From an upwind direction, the strombolian activity can be best seen. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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Trails of blocks rolling down the slope after a small explosion. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Trails of blocks rolling down the slope after a small explosion. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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A lava-rich phase in the warm sunset light. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
A lava-rich phase in the warm sunset light. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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Probably at this time (around 17:30), a new lava flow starts to creep out from the effusive vent visible in the lower right. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Probably at this time (around 17:30), a new lava flow starts to creep out from the effusive vent vis... [info]
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A small lava fountain and the effusive vent beneath the crater rim. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
A small lava fountain and the effusive vent beneath the crater rim. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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After a phase with mostly incandescent material, a more ash-rich phase sets in after sunset. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
After a phase with mostly incandescent material, a more ash-rich phase sets in after sunset. (Photo:... [info]
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This explosion generated a particularly strong shock wave. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
This explosion generated a particularly strong shock wave. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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Ash column rising several hundred meters before being bent over by the weak wind. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Ash column rising several hundred meters before being bent over by the weak wind. (Photo: Tom Pfeiff... [info]
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Incandescent fountain at the base of the ash column. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Incandescent fountain at the base of the ash column. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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Lava bombs often fall onto the eastern flank of the cone (right in picture). (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Lava bombs often fall onto the eastern flank of the cone (right in picture). (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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As it gets darker, the fireworks become more and more spectacular... (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
As it gets darker, the fireworks become more and more spectacular... (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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Ash-rich explosion. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Ash-rich explosion. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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Red lava-rich explosion (1/2 images a second apart) (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Red lava-rich explosion (1/2 images a second apart) (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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Red lava-rich explosion (2/2 images a second apart) (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Red lava-rich explosion (2/2 images a second apart) (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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