Krakatau volcano (Indonesia) Nov 2018 eruption: lava flow into the sea

We managed to arrive at Krakatau at the end of a very intense phase of activity between 17-19 Nov, which produced a new lava flow that reached the sea along a 150 m wide stretch on the southern shore of Anak Krakatau. At the time of our arrival, the effusion rate must have stopped just hours before at most, but the flow front was still active:
We approach the island group around 13:00 on 19 Nov - to our joy, the lava sea entry from yesterday and today's lava flow is still active. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
We approach the island group around 13:00 on 19 Nov - to our joy, the lava sea entry from yesterday ... [info]
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A lava flow enters the sea from Anak Krakatau on 19 Nov 2018, producing a tall steam plume. Near-continuous explosions occur at the summit vent, generating an ash plume. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
A lava flow enters the sea from Anak Krakatau on 19 Nov 2018, producing a tall steam plume. Near-con... [info]
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The sea around the sea entry is steaming hot. Even in about 100 m distance, the water is almost too warm to touch. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
The sea around the sea entry is steaming hot. Even in about 100 m distance, the water is almost too ... [info]
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The sea entry is at least about 150 m wide, suggesting that the effusion rate must have been quite high. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
The sea entry is at least about 150 m wide, suggesting that the effusion rate must have been quite h... [info]
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A closer look at the sea entry shows some vertical jetting steam explosions (so-called littoral eruptions). (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
A closer look at the sea entry shows some vertical jetting steam explosions (so-called littoral erup... [info]
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Looking closer, lots of small dark fragments of rock are hurled up at the lava entry. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Looking closer, lots of small dark fragments of rock are hurled up at the lava entry. (Photo: Tom Pf... [info]
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The steam plume drifting with the wind in NE direction covers most of the summit cone, where continuous explosive activity generates a dark ash plume. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
The steam plume drifting with the wind in NE direction covers most of the summit cone, where continu... [info]
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Wide-angle view of the erupting volcano. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Wide-angle view of the erupting volcano. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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Even only about an hour since we arrived, the activity at the sea entry seems to weaken already. The absence of visible lava flow activity on the flank of the cone suggests that the effusive activity had stopped a short time ago (few hours at most), which means it probably only lasted a day or so (it was first visible on the evening webcam views the previous night), typical for short-lived paroxysms with high effusion rates, that seem to occur from time to time now at Krakatau. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Even only about an hour since we arrived, the activity at the sea entry seems to weaken already. The... [info]
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Our excellent expedition leader Galih watching the activity. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Our excellent expedition leader Galih watching the activity. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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A vertical jet as overheated water vapour condensates into billowing steam. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
A vertical jet as overheated water vapour condensates into billowing steam. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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Small littoral explosions continue for a while at various spots. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Small littoral explosions continue for a while at various spots. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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Sometimes, the explosions generate small dark jets of steam mixed with rock debris. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Sometimes, the explosions generate small dark jets of steam mixed with rock debris. (Photo: Tom Pfei... [info]
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A somewhat larger littoral explosion ejects many small rocks followed with so-called cock-tail trails of steam. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
A somewhat larger littoral explosion ejects many small rocks followed with so-called cock-tail trail... [info]
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As the afternoon proceeds, the activity at the sea entry continues to weaken. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
As the afternoon proceeds, the activity at the sea entry continues to weaken. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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The absence of fresh lava from higher ground leaves the lava flow without its "nutrition", and the movement at the front slowly stalls. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
The absence of fresh lava from higher ground leaves the lava flow without its "nutrition", and the m... [info]
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However, a new surge of lava has started shortly after sunset and is producing a small new lava flow on top of the previous one. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
However, a new surge of lava has started shortly after sunset and is producing a small new lava flow... [info]
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At nightfall, the sea entry has stopped and only produces some weak steam when waves bring water in contact with still hot parts of its front. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
At nightfall, the sea entry has stopped and only produces some weak steam when waves bring water in ... [info]
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View from the beach at our campsite; our lights illuminate the trees behind and partially above us. The new lava flow is quite small and seems not to progress much any more, eventually stalling and becoming weaker in glow. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
View from the beach at our campsite; our lights illuminate the trees behind and partially above us. ... [info]
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At around 22:00 local time, another surge of lava occurs and produces a second flow, which is more alimented and quickly advances at speeds of about 10 cm per seconds. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
At around 22:00 local time, another surge of lava occurs and produces a second flow, which is more a... [info]
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The new lava flow advances quickly and visible increases by the minute. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
The new lava flow advances quickly and visible increases by the minute. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) [info]
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After about 10 minutes since the start of the new lava flow, we're surprised to see a giant lava bubble appear in the summit crater and explode with a strong detonating sound, ejecting meter-sized lava fragments symmetrically in all directions. This bubble probably explains why just before the effusion rate increased: as it rose the final distance through the upper conduit, it pushed the magma column out of the effusive vent. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
After about 10 minutes since the start of the new lava flow, we're surprised to see a giant lava bub... [info]
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After the large bubble explosions, the effusion rate decreases and the lava flow starts slowly to weaken. At the summit strong strombolian activity continues. The vent of the lava flow can be seen from a depression just beneath the southern rim of the main crater (same spot where the 17 Oct explosion occurred). (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
After the large bubble explosions, the effusion rate decreases and the lava flow starts slowly to we... [info]
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Activity at the summit continues with little changes the whole night, but the lava flow eventually starts to die out, after having reached the base of the cone where it forms a small delta. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Activity at the summit continues with little changes the whole night, but the lava flow eventually s... [info]
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View of the still warm 17-19 Nov lava flow delta on 20 Nov afternoon. Anak Krakatau has just added a hectare or so of new land... (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
View of the still warm 17-19 Nov lava flow delta on 20 Nov afternoon. Anak Krakatau has just added a... [info]
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