BackgroundA number of large explosive eruptions occurred in the late Pleistocene and Holocene and produced pyroclastic flows and wide-spread tephra layers.
Pyroclastic deposits from Pululahua volcano overlie artifacts of the Cotocollao archaeological site in the northern Quito region. Excavations indicate that the site was in use for more than 1000 years, until 2450 years ago, and was suddenly abandoned due to eruptions of Pululahua volcano.
There are 7 fallout deposits of pumice layers from past plinian eruptions, which are separated by ash beds, each with a thickness less than 1 m, from smaller eruptions in the intervals between major explosive events.
Repeated ash fall-out in the downwind direction from Pululahua volcano has had severe effects on human communities as far as the slopes of the Western Cordillera and up to 150-200 km toward the coast of Ecuador.
Paolo Papale and Mauro Rosi (1993) "A case of no-wind plinian fallout at Pululagua caldera (Ecuador): implications for models of clast dispersal", Bull. Volc., Volume 55, Number 7, pp. 523-53
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