The (sub-)plinian eruption of Mt Kelut volcano on 13 Feb 2014
Satellite image of Kelut's eruption
Update Sun 02 Mar 11:15
Late on February 13, 2014, Kelut (also called Kelud) exploded with a powerful eruption. Satellites first detected the eruption plume at 11:09 p.m. local time (16:09 UTC). At 12:30 a.m. (17:30 UTC), the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP satellite acquired the top image as the mushroom-shaped ash plume reached above a lighter-colored cloud deck.
The eruption plume with beautiful gravity waves. NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen, using expediated data provided by the CALIPSO team. Caption by Holli Riebeek
Forty minutes later, at 1:10 a.m. (18:10 UTC), the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite flew over the plume with CALIOP, its lidar instrument. Acting like a laser range finder, CALIOP uses a laser to create a profile of clouds and particles in the atmosphere. The instrument recorded the ash cloud at nearly 20 kilometers (12 miles) altitude, with sections of the plume reaching to nearly 30 kilometers (19 miles).
from: Nasa Earth Observatory
Update Thu 20 Feb 11:25
Kelut on 18 Feb 2014
Kelut on 15 Feb
The website of the International Charter Space and Major Disasters has great annotated satellite images showing the volcano before and after the eruption as well as the extensive ash and lahar deposits. At the place of the 2007 lava dome, a crater of about 400 m diameter was formed by the explosion.
Comparison of Kelut before and after the eruption
SO2 plume from the eruption not going to affect world's climate
Update Sun 16 Feb 11:30
SO2 plume from Kelut's eruption over the Indian Ocean (@simoncarn)
The SO2 aerosol plume from the eruption is drifting over the Indian Ocean. Despite the impressive explosion, in terms of quantity of SO2 ejected into the atmosphere, the eruption was a very modest event and is not going to affect earth's climate.
CALIPSO lidar data for Kelud eruption show nice gravity waves in the umbrella cloud at ~19 km altitude (@simoncarn)
Credit: Simon Carn @simoncarn / Twitter https://twitter.com/simoncarn/status/434750482716708864/photo/1
Gravity waves in the eruption plume
The second picture shows the eruption column and umbrella cloud expanding at 19 km altitude, the top part of the column shooting over to 25-27 km altitude, and very nice gravity waves:
As the eruption column was propelled upwards, driven by positive buoyancy due to the enormous heat content, its momentum made it shoot over its buoyancy-equilibrium level at 19 km, reaching up to 27 km. Afterwards, the plume sank back again now due to its weight and began spreading laterally into the umbrella cloud. As the plume swung down and above its equilibrium level (where buoyancy is zero), it created the so-called gravity waves visible in the picture. They are comparable to those waves induced when a stone is thrown into a lake and produces ring-shaped surface waves.
Credit: imon Carn @simoncarn / Twitter: https://twitter.com/simoncarn/status/434730560947118080/photo/1 (CALIPSO lidar data for Kelud eruption show nice gravity waves in the umbrella cloud at ~19 km altitude)
Destruction caused by the eruption
Update Sun 16 Feb 11:17
Our correspondents Aris and Andy sent us some impressions from the devastated areas near Kelut. The village Pandan Sari (Ngantang) is totally destroyed. Up to 1 meter of tephra (ash, lapilli and small bombs) have fallen in places and 30 cm of ash is found inside houses.
Roof destroyed by ash fall
Samples of pumice from the eruption
Interior of house whose roof collapsed under the load of ash