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The central crater vent of Stromboli in eruption (23 Oct 07)
During the recent tour "From Stromboli to Etna" we observed mild to moderate explosions from Stromboli volcano. The most active vent appears to be in the former central crater, with powerful explosions throwing glowing material up to 200m elevation above the crater and often outside on the N and NE flanks. Other vents in the eastern and western part of the crater erupt occasionally with loud bangs and loud hissing noises produced by strong gas jets.
Fuego volcano continues its moderate strombolian activity; INSIVUMEH reported frequent explosions such as on 10 October that produce ash plumes rising to to altitudes of 4-5 km (13,000-16,400 ft) a.s.l. and mostly drifiting N and NW. The explosions are often accompanied by rumbling noises and jet-engine like sounds. Avalanches of collapsing spatter from the growing cone in the inner crater descend W into the Taniluyá and Santa Teresa ravines. --- Source: INSIVUMEH
The Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) raised the altert status of Kelut volcano on 16 October from 3 to 4 (on a scale of 1-4). During 15-28 September, gas discharge from the crater lake increased and spread in a radius of 5 m. Inflation around the summit occurred during 13-16 October. On 16 October, the temperature in the crater lake increased to 37.8 degrees C.
In conjunction with the elevated Alert Status, CVGHM recommended to the local authorities that villagers within a 10 km radius should evacuate. According to a news article, about 50,000 people evacuated on 16 October. On 17 October, thousands of people returned to their homes to tend to crops and animals, and to get food.
AVO increased the Volcanic Alert Level to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow for Augustine on 22 September due to an increase in seismic activity below the summit over the previous week. ...more
During 22-25 September, the earthquakes were generally less than M 1 and were located at shallow depths beneath the summit. [less]
KVERT reported that seismic activity at Shiveluch was above background levels during 7-14 September. During 6-9 September, avalanches occurred and ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4-6.5 km (13,100-21,300 ft) a.s.l. Observations of video data indicated that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. on 7 September. Gas-and-steam plumes were noted on 7, 10, and 11 September. A thermal anomaly was present in the crater on satellite imagery during the reporting period. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange
White vapor plumes rose from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone from 10-18 September. On 16, 18, and 19 September, occasional ash plumes rose to an altitude of 0.9 km and drifted W or NW. Slight ashfall was reported in areas around.
AVO reported that seismic activity at Pavlof declined markedly during 8-18 September, compared to levels recorded during the first week of September. Seismicity was characterized by volcanic tremor, and signals interpreted as small explosions. Based on observations of satellite imagery, a steam plume rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. on 12 September and multiple thermal anomalies were present during 12-14 September. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange
HVO reported that during 12-18 September fissure segment D from Kilauea's 21 July fissure eruption continued to feed an advancing 'a'a lava flow that frequently overflowed its channel edges. Several of the lava flows that branched from the main channel continued to advance, widening the flow field. An 'a'a flow that developed within the previous two weeks crusted over and pahoehoe breakouts issued from near the flow front on 14 September. A few small earthquakes were located beneath Halema'uma'u crater, the S flank, and the lower SW rift zone during the reporting period.
Tungurahua volcano continues to erupt. Although still considerable, the intensity of activity has been showing a decreasing trend in the past weeks and months. Intermittend explosions produced plumes rising to altitudes of 5.3-8 km (17,400-26,200 ft) a.s.l. during 5-6 and 9-10 September.
Activity at Pavlov volcano continues at fluctuating levels. Judging from seismic data and visual observations - often difficult because of cloud cover -, frequent weak explosions and rockfalls are taking place and a strong thermal anomaly continues to be visible in the summit area on satellite data, indicating that the new lava dome is still growing.
Laguna Caliente, the frequently visited summit lake of Poás volcano, exhibits signs that increased fumarolic activity is happening at the bottom of the lake: now greenish-gray in color, convection cells in the lake's center and dark gray floating particles are being noted.
Subaqueous fumaroles at the center of the lake released gases that spread and covered the entire surface of the lake. The level of the lake had dropped 59 cm with respect to its level in July, and it had a temperature of 58 degrees Celsius. Fumarolic activity from a pyroclastic cone produced gas plumes that rose 400 m above the floor of the crater. Points of gas discharge were noted from the N and NW crater walls, the terrace, and the NE edge of the crater. Fumaroles in contact with the lake and the NE wall produced sulfur particles that floated in the lake. Emissions from the SE and NE crater walls were very low in volume.
In a field report from 16 August, staff from OVSICORI-UNA reports that new points of gas discharge, small landslides, and accelerated vegetation die-off were noted from various locations within and around the crater.
Fumaroles were active in almost all directions in the central crater; many exhibited sulfur deposits and those in the S, SE, and SW reached a temperature of 91 degrees C. Fumaroles at the bottom of the W crater reached 176 degrees C on 16 August. Small sulfur flows from a few of the fumaroles descended about 2 m from the emission point. Steam plumes from fumaroles on the W wall rose to an altitude of 3.8 km (12,500 ft) a.s.l.
Arenal volcano continues to be mildly active. Over the past weeks, activity at crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, lava flows traveling down the SW and S flanks, and occasional avalanches from lava-flow fronts. Blocks from the lava-flow fronts periodically reached vegetation and started small fires. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material affected the NE and SE flanks. Eruptions produced ash plumes that rose about 2.2 km (7,100 ft) a.s.l. Pyroclastic cones on the NE and SW flanks continued to grow. Small avalanches of volcanic material traveled down several ravines. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity. ...more
Source: GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 5-11 September 2007
As more evidence about the large eruption at Lengai volcano on 4-5 Sep is pieced together, it appears that the eruption was probably a mainly explosive event while evidence of significant lava flows on the flanks becomes less. The observed "lava flows" could have been bush fires ignited by hot ejecta. In any case, there is little doubt that the observed ash cloud was the result of a significant explosive eruption and not just landslides on the steep flank.
In the meanwhile, the mountain has calmed down and only weak thermal anomalies are being detected on the summit. It would be imprudent to say that the eruption is over. If this is indeed the start of a major explosive cycle, more eruptions could follow in the next weeks and months. Field investigations are under way.
It seems that the eruption at Lengai is indeed a major event and that explosive activity has taken or is taking place in addition to lava flows and probably, bush fires. According to local sources from the nearby Moivaro - Lake Natron Camp, Lengai first erupted at midnight and at 6 am on 4 September. A pilot reported ash rising to 20,000 ft (ca. 6 km). Ashfall was reported from Engaresero Village, but there are no reports on injuries or fatalities. The highly regarded Moivaro Tented Lodge near Lake Natron has been temporarily evacuated.
Scientists including Matthieu Kervyn warn to approach the volcano as it could develop into a major explosive, crater-clearing eruption such as in 1966-67. Extremely dangerous pyroclastic flows could be and are likely to be associated if the eruption escalates.
Satellite image of the eruption at Lengai volcano (image: NASA/GSFC/METI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team)
A large eruption seems to be taking place at Lengai volcano, this time for real: On 4 Sept., reports started coming in that a large (natrocarbonatite?) lava flow is descending the West flank. A considerable ash plume was visible on satellite data.
Over 30 thermal anomalies have been detected by the MODIS team since August 23 - more than during the large eruption in March 2006. On 4 and 5 Sep, the thermal anomaly at the summit was extremely strong. From this and satellite imaginery, it seems that there was a short overflow to the East and a major overflow to the West starting on September 1st (it could be a bush fire on the volcano flank ignited by lava). New overflows on 5 Sep seem to be taking place on the W and NW flanks.
Last night, a sudden increasee in tremor accompanied the start of a powerful so-called paroxysmal eruption, during which the vent on the E flank of the SE crater, which had been in intermittend mild strombolian activity since mid August, erupted tall lava fountains - several hundres of meters high - and some lava flows. The tall ash columns generated by the intense explosive activity dispersed to the southeast and forced the temporary closure of Catania's airpoirt.
The eruption lasted around 7 hrs and ended around 4:30 this morning.
Etna's SE crater, the youngest and in recent years most active of its 4 summit vents, is increasing its activity. Since the ash emissions started in mid August, weak strombolian activity has been increasing gradually. The first incanescent ejecta were observed by INGV on 21 August. Over the past week, strombolian activity has become more and more common. On 31 August, an overflight confirmed that a new cinder cone is now growing within the depression in the eastern flank of the SEC.
Pavlov's eruption continues and it seems increasing. A strong eruption took place yesterday: at approximately 9:30 pm local time (AKDT) on August 31, National Weather Service observers in Cold Bay reported a substantial plume and associated lightning emanating from Pavlof Volcano reaching approximately 20,000 ft (6,000 m) above sea level. If activity continues to increase in intensity, larger ash clouds that could affect higher-flying aircraft may be produced. The most immediate ground hazard in the vicinity of the volcano includes light ash fall on nearby communities.
Blue flames of burning sulfur: Ijen volcano in East Java has one of the most impressive sulfur deposits on earth. They are so hot that the sulfur often ignites - a mysterious display at night caught on camera.
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