The Volcano Adventure Guide: Excellent information and background for anyone wishing to visit active volcanoes safely and enjoyably. The book presents guidelines to visiting 42 different volcanoes around the world.
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At least 3 people were killed by mud flows. 1,000-2,600 more were evacuated from several villages on 27-28 December, when heavy rainfall turned fresh ash deposits into devastating mud flows. Most damage was in the villages of Tubo and Tofure and along the Togorara and Marikurubu rivers.
Increased seismicity from Sorik Marapi was detected during 1-12 December and white plumes rose 40-50 m above the summit. CVGHM raised the Alert Level on 12 December from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and back to 1 (normal) on 30 December 2011.
The new island in the Red Sea seen on 23 Dec 2011 (NASA Earth Observatory)
NASA satellite images show that the eruption in the Red Sea in the Zubair archipelago has produced a new island. The island is circular, about 500 m wide and located about 1 km north of Rugged Island. It consists of fresh probably basaltic lava flows and an active vent seems to be in its center. ...more
A large steam plume, generated by evaporating sea water at the entry of lava flows into the sea is seen on the satellite image, drifting north. The island has apparently passed through an explosive Surtseyan phase very quickly, probably because the erupting basalt lava was poor in gas and because the output rate was high, so that the vent could be sealed from water access in short time.
Ijen volcano in East Java, famous for its turquoise crater lake and the massive sulfur deposits inside the crater, might be close to an eruption. ...more
Due to further increased seismic activity, stronger degassing and steaming, the Indonesian Geological Survey has raised the alert level for Ijen volcano from 2 to 3 (out of 4). A phreatic eruption could occur any time, geologists believe. The lake has changed color to white. The last eruption was in 1993 and had produced ash plumes rising about 1000 m. [less]
The number of earthquakes beneath Santorini volcano remains at slightly elevated levels. The activity is concentrated along the volcano-tectonic SW-NE alignment passing through the submarine volcano Kolumbo 8 km to the NE of the island and the center of the caldera where most volcanic vents in the past hundreds of thousands years of activity at Santorini were located.
Mt. Lokon volcano near Tomohon city in North Sulawesi erupted again with 3 explosions on Tuesday (26 Dec) early morning shortly after 3 am local time, the Jakarta Post reports. The eruptions followed a rapid increase in seismic activity detected since Monday. An exclusion zone of 2.5 kilometers around the volcano is in place. ...more
The last significant activity at Lokon was in mid July, when a violent phase of ash explosions forced the evacuation of 5,000 people from 3 villages. [less]
Bulusan volcano (Philippines) could be close to a new eruption. The volcano has been showing increased seismic activity and slight inflation on the NNE flank during the past 2 weeks, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHILVOLCS) reports. ...more
A warning for possible eruptions was issued and it is advised to stay out of a 4 km radius around the volcano and not to fly over it. [less]
The sulfur dioxide plumes from Nyiragongo volcano (b) and Nyamuragira volcano (t), both in eruption, on 23 Dec 2012 (NOAA)
The flank eruption of Nyamuragira volcano north of Goma city, DRCongo, which had started in early November, is still going on, although at much smaller intensity than during the first weeks. ...more
A significant plume of sulfur dioxide and a thermal anomaly are visible on satellite images, indicating that there is still effusion of lava, probably accompanied by strombolian activity at the new vent. [less]
Eruption from Dukono volcano on 21 Dec 2011 (photo: Andi / VolcanoDiscovery Indonesia)
The remote Dukono volcano in Halmahera Island continues to produce ash explosions with plumes rising up to 1 km above the crater. Eruptions are following each other in intervals of 5-15 minutes and there are frequent small tremors.
MODIS thermal image of the area of the reported eruption (the Zubair islands are in the center). No hot spot is visible, which could indicate either the eruption was extremely short and small, or there was another cause of the report.
More sources are emerging, confirming that in fact an eruption seems to have taken place: Aref Hamoud, a reader from Yemen confirms us the original report, that an eruption happened on 19 Dec on "Saba Island Coordinates: (Lat. 15° 5'13.38"N Long. 42° 9'10.12"E)", and that people in the area could feel a quake associated with it that day.
Graphic from VAAC Toulouse showing the location of the reported steam plume above Jebel Zubair in the Red Sea
SO2 plume above the Red Sea on 19 Dec (Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring http://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov)
Tungurahua volcano's activity has calmed down. Since 9 December, its activity has consisted only of steaming. No larger explosions or pyroclastic flows have been observed, the Ecuadorian Geohpysical Institute reports in its latest bulletin. Gas measurements show a significant decrease in SO2 emission and deformation shows no indication of new magma rising in the conduit.
The ongoing weak volcanic tremor as recorded by IGN on 19 Dec
The submarine eruption south of El Hierro is still going on, but there are signs magma supply has dropped significantly. Most likely, the eruption which now has lasted over 2 months is approaching its end. ...more
Volcanic tremor has decreased a lot, and there are almost no more bursts related to steam explosions at the underwater vent. Diffuse CO2 emissions (CO2 being interpreted as indication of fresh magma supply) has decreased, too. Earthquakes which are often related when new magma intrusions create new paths in the substrata, have almost stopped as well. The water discoloration south of La Restinga is still present and weak upwelling of muddy water is still being observed, but much less than previously, and with less intensity.
Graph published by INVOLCAN showing the drop in CO2 emission levels
The alert level of Ijen volcano in East Java has been raised to alert/unrest (2 out of 4) due to increased seismic activity and increased temperatures and fumaroles inside the crater, famous for its turquoise acid lake and the sulfur deposits, which are being quarried by workers. ...more
An exclusion zone of 1 km around the crater has been established. Workers and tourists are currently not allowed to go inside the crater. [less]
Map of recent earthquakes beneath Santorini, showing the 3.2 event at Kolumbos volcano NE of Santorini
At 19h22 GMT (21h22 local time), a 3.2 earthquake occurred at the little-known submarine volcano Kolumbos ca. 8 km NE of Santorini, Island, Greece. This marks one of the largest events in recent months. ...more
The submarine volcano whose peak rises to just 18 m below sea level, is located on the tectonically active SW-NE fault system across Santorini which confines most volcanic vents of the Santorini volcanic complex in the past 500,000 years. Kolumbus volcano last erupted in September 1650 following a year of frequent earthquakes. The eruption produced a large explosive pumice eruption, with ash fall recorded as far as Turkey, and built a temporary island. The main phase of the eruption triggered a devastating tsunami. Toxic gasses killed more than 25 people and hundreds of livestock on Santorini by suffocation (probably H2S). [less]
While the previously frequent earthquakes have almost disappeared, the submarine eruption near La Restinga has gained momentum again over the past days, rising chances that it still could break the surface. ...more
The visible stain and "jacuzzi", i.e. rising bubbly and muddy water above the vent area has been more vigorous in the past days, although no reports are available about steaming blocks reaching the surface. [less]
Eruptions are continuing at Gamalana volcano, consisting of moderate to strong ash explosions, as observed by our correspondant on location. Volcanologist Mr Kristianto, head/coordinator of all observatory post in eastern Indonesia, reports 4 explosions on 4 December and numerous volcanic earthquakes. The daily status update reads: ...more
- Tremors occuring continuously with amplitudes of maximal 0,5 - 2 mm ( recorded on the seismograph) - Volcanic earthquake : 52 times
At 6:15pm on December 9, 2011, lava from the September 21st fissure first entered the ocean at East Ka'ili'ili in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, 4.5 miles from the end of Chain of Craters Rd, and 3.5 miles from Kalapana Gardens. Lava flows are also vigorously active all across the coastal plain, leaking from the newly formed lava tube, AND are visible flowing down the hillside in large rivers from a distance as well. Please contact us for more information on current accessibility!
Sundoro volcano in central Java, Indonesia, is becoming restless and the Indonesian Volcanologic Survey raised its alert level to 2 (out of 4) on 6 December 2011, after an increase of tremors was detected. ...more
The temperature of fumaroles at the summit crater increased from 75 deg C on 26 November to 95 deg C on 2 December. A plume of steam rose several tens of meters. It is advised not to approach the crater within a radius of 2 km. [less]
Lava flows from Pu`u `O`o vent's newest fissure, which began erupting in September, have finally advanced onto Kīlauea's coastal plain and are accessible by foot! It is a 2-3 hour hike EACH WAY over very uneven terrain, typically a 6 hour round-trip from Kalapana. ...more
Today marks the first day since the beginning of March that lava flows are accessible up close. Contact us today for an up close lava experience while these conditions last! [less]
Mount Gamalama volcano in Indonesia's remote North Maluku province erupted at 23:00 local time on Sunday (1400 GMT), according to local news. The eruption produced small amounts of ash, causing local electrical blackouts and ash fall in the provincial capital city of Ternate. ...more
There are reports of damage or fatalities. According to the news, some people from nearby villages have evacuated to safer locations, while a number remained at their homes. No ash seems to be visible on satellite imaginary: the VAAC Darwin has not issued any advisories, suggesting that the eruption is small. On the other hand, ash is difficult to detect in tropical areas with heavy cloud cover.
Gamalana volcano on the evening of 11 Dec (photo: Andi)
After a few days with constant, but minor ash emission, the intensity of Tungurahua's eruption has increased during the night between Friday and Saturday (2-3 Dec), IGEPN from Quito reports. ...more
Explosions produced ash plumes rising 3-5 km above the crater and produced small pyroclastic flows of app. 500 m length on the western flank. Ejections of incandescent lava blocks to up to 1 km distance were observed. Ash fall is occurring in nearby villages, inclucing Palitahua, Runtún, Cusúa, Pillate and Juive. Strong explosion sounds are heard in Baños, Cusúa, Runtún and Pillate, where shock waves rattle doors and windows. The lack of rain has (so-far) prevented the formation of dangerous mud flows (lahars). [less]
The daily number of earthquakes has been following a clear decreasing trend over the past weeks, suggesting the eruption might be dying down.
The submarine eruption south of El Hierro has calmed down since last weekend, when still steaming hot lava blocks rose to the surface above the submarine vent about 1 km off La Restinga. Not much has been seen since then, except a light and sometimes muddy stain caused by upwelling water containing volcanic gasses and particles. ...more
Seismic activity continues to decrease overall, suggesting that the eruption is slowly ending, to the relief of many inhabitants of the island (and to the disappointment of others... who would have loved to see a new island emerge). [less]
Fuego's activity has calmed down a bit and consists of weak near-continuous ash emissions rising approximately 300 m with occasional stronger explosions occurring about 6-8 times per hour, the National Institute of Seismology, Volcanology, Meteorology and Hydrology (INSIVUMEH) reports. ...more
According to National Coordinator for Disaster Reduction (CONRED), explosions produce a plume drifting to the southwest and reaching about 20 km length. Small, but frequent rock avalanches are observed in the "Ash Canyon" on the steep southern side of the summit cone. [less]
Earthquakes on Santorini between 2 Sep and 1 Dec , 2011 (source: Department of Geophysics, Aristoteles University of Thessaloniki)
Seismic activity beneath Santorini volcano continues to be slightly above normal levels. Beginning since July this year, an there is elevated activity in a SW-NE trending zone passing through Nea Kameni and the submarine Kolumbos volcano NE of Santorini. ...more
The alignment (also known as the Kameni and Kolumbus lines) is a ca. 2 km wide zone parallel to a tectonic horst and graben structure of the crystalline basement of the area. Most of the known volcanic vents of Santorini during the past 2 million years were located on this alignment, more precisely either on its southern boundary (Kameni line) or on its northern boundary (Kolumbus line). Lacking other data sources, the information visible on the location and number of earthquakes is too weak, other than to vaguely speculate that the current earthquake activity around Santorini could be a precursor to new activity from this volcano. Santorini's last eruption was in 1950.
Earthquakes on Santorini between 30 Aug and 28 Nov, 2011 (source: Department of Geophysics, Aristoteles University of Thessaloniki)
Earthquakes on Santorini between 27 Aug and 25 Nov, 2011 (source: Department of Geophysics, Aristoteles University of Thessaloniki)
Blue flames of burning sulfur: Ijen volcano in East Java has one of the most impressive sulfur deposits on earth. They are so hot that the sulfur often ignites - a mysterious display at night caught on camera.
Dukono volcano photos: Dukono on Halmahera in Indonesia has been in permanent activity for years, often producing ash plumes that drift around the northern part of the island and have become normality.
The term for all fine-grained volcanic products fragmented during explosive eruptions.
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