Toba volcano

Caldera 2157 m (7,077 ft)
Sumatra, Indonesien, 2.34°N / 98.83°E
Current status: normal or dormant (1 out of 5)

Toba volcano has produced the largest known volcanic eruption on earth during the past 2 million years.

Show interactive Map
[hide map] [enlarge]
Typical eruption style:

Explosive.


Toba volcano eruptions: 74,000 y BP

Latest nearby earthquakes

TimeMag. / DepthDistance/Location
Fri, 11 Jun 2021 (GMT) (2 earthquakes)
11 Jun 2021 12:25:19 GMT
3.0

147 km
22 km (14 mi)
62 km south of Pematangsiantar, North Sumatra, Indonesia
11 Jun 2021 03:07:03 GMT
2.6

10 km
23 km (14 mi)
15 km southwest of Tomok Bolon, Kabupaten Samosir, North Sumatra, Indonesia

Background

About 74,000 years BP, more than 2500 cubic kilometers of magma were erupted. The eruption led to the final formation of one of earths largest calderas, the 35x100 km wide Toba caldera. Eruptions of this size are exptremely rare and are called supervolcano-eruptions. The Toba caldera is in fact the Earth's largest Quaternary caldera. It was formed during four major Pleistocene ignimbrite-producing eruptions beginning at 1.2 million years ago and culminating with the colossal Young Toba Tuff (YTT) eruption about 74,000 years ago. The YTT emplaced about 2500-3000 cu km (dense rock equivalent) of ignimbrite and airfall ash from vents at the NW and SE ends of present-day Lake Toba.
After the YTT eruption, resurgent doming formed the massive Samosir Island and Uluan Peninsula structural blocks. Additional post-YTT eruptions include a series of lava domes, the growth of the solfatarically active Pusukbukit volcano on the south margin of the caldera, and the formation of Tandukbenua volcano at the NW-most rim of the caldera. Lack of vegetation suggests that this volcano may be only a few hundred years old.

---
Source: GVP, Smithsonian Institute

Toba Photos

Volcanoes El Chonco, San Cristobal (highest volcano in Nicaragua) and Casita, view from Chichigalpa (Photo: WNomad)
Volcanoes El Chonco, San Cristobal (highest volcano in Nicaragua) and Casita, view from Chichigalpa (Photo: WNomad)
Stratovolcano San Cristobal, view from Chichigalpa, Nicaragua (Photo: WNomad)
Stratovolcano San Cristobal, view from Chichigalpa, Nicaragua (Photo: WNomad)
 



See also: Sentinel hub | Landsat 8
Show more

Try our free app!
Volcanoes & Earthquakes - new app for Android
Android | iOS version

More on VolcanoDiscovery

Why is there advertising on this site?
Support us - Help us upgrade our services!
We truly love working to bring you the latest volcano and earthquake data from around the world. Maintaining our website and our free apps does require, however, considerable time and resources.
We need financing to increase hard- and software capacity as well as support our editor team. We're aiming to achieve uninterrupted service wherever an earthquake or volcano eruption unfolds, and your donations can make it happen! Every donation will be highly appreciated. If you find the information useful and would like to support our team in integrating further features, write great content, and in upgrading our soft- and hardware, please make a donation (PayPal or Online credit card payment).

Planned features:
  • Weather reports
  • Tsunami alerts
  • Design upgrades
  • Faster responsiveness
Thanks to your past donations, these features have been added recently:
  • Earthquake archive from 1900 onwards
  • Additional seismic data sources
  • Improved content in English
Download and Upgrade the Volcanoes & Earthquakes app to get one of the fastest seismic and volcano alerts online:
Android | IOS
Thank you!
Copyrights: VolcanoDiscovery and other sources as noted.
Use of material: Most texts and images, in particular photographs, on this website are protected by copyright. Further reproduction and use of without authorization is usually not consented. If you are not sure or need licensing rights for photographs, for example for publications and commercial use, please contact us.