The Volcano Adventure Guide: Excellent information and background for anyone wishing to visit active volcanoes safely and enjoyably. The book presents guidelines to visiting 42 different volcanoes around the world.
Calbuco volcano, along with its neighbor Osorno, is one of Chile's most active volcanoes. It is located 11 km south of Lake Llanquihué and 30 km NE of the town of Puerto Mont in the Lake District in southern Chile.
Calbuco volcano consists mainly of blocky aa lava flows and tephra layers, and its summit is truncated by a 400-500 m wide summit crater. Debris avalanches from Calbuco have reached Lake Llanquihue.
One of the largest historical eruptions in southern Chile took place from Calbuco in 1893-1894. It ended with the formation of a lava dome in the summit crater. Later eruptions have enlarged the lava-dome complex.
The alert level was raised a notch last week, as volcanologists from SERNAGEOMIN started to record a significant increase in seismicity associated with a slight inflation of the volcanic edifice,- typical signs of magma intrusion at depth under the volcano. ...more
No particular signs of unrest are (for now) visible on the surface of the volcano which had a spectacular series of eruptions in April last year. The detected seismic activity is caused by rock-fracturing at depths around 8-10 km, according to the seismologists. The interpretation is that following the eruptions last year, the internal plumbing system of the volcano has depressurized and is now being resupplied by fresh magma, causing an increase of pressure on the rocks, and, hence, small fracturing events to accommodate the new magma. Whether or not this might lead to new activity in a near to medium term future (weeks, months from now), is impossible to say. [less]
OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 20-26 May activity at Calbuco fluctuated at low levels and continued to decline. Inclement weather prevented observations of the summit area on most days; white plumes were observed rising 300-400 m and drifting SE during 24-26 May, and incandescence at the crater was observed at night during 25-26 May. According to ONEMI, the number of evacuees within the 20-km evacuation zone remained at 6,685 on 26 May. ...more
The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale), and the 10-km-radius exclusion zone continued to be in effect. (Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report 20-26 May 2015) [less]
A strong explosive eruption occurred today (12:10 on 30 April, local time) at the volcano, producing an ash column that rose several kilometers above the summit crater. ...more
VAAC Buenos Aires estimated the height of the plume at 16,000 ft (5 km) altitude. The explosion came after a gradual decrease in activity with weak ash emissions during the past days. The alert level remains at red (highest). [less]
Activity has been lower yesterday, but weak ash emissions continued at least intermittently. ...more
Sernageomin reported decreasing levels of seismic activity yesterday, dominated by 283 volcanic-tectonic quakes mostly at 8 km depth, as well as weak volcanic tremor. It is unclear whether the eruptive phase is ending or heading towards a new phase of magmatic activity, with the possible scenario of new larger exposive and/or effusive (lava flows, lava dome emplacement) activity. A main hazard at the moment is the occurrence of lahars, mudflows that are generated when rainwater mobilizes the abundant fresh ash deposits. [less]
Mild to moderate emissions of ash and incandescent material (probably as strombolian explosions) continue at the summit vent(s). A small ash plume rises approx. 1 km and is currently drifting east. ...more
Alert level remains red. A new intensification of activity cannot be ruled out as it is not known how much of eruptible magma in the volcano's storage system has been evacuated during the strong eruptions on 22-23 April. [less]
Starting from 23:30 local time last night (23 April), activity at the volcano has again increased. The volcano started to produce more or less continuous small to moderate ash emissions, that have been reaching up to 2 km height and drifted mainly northeast. ...more
This increase in activity has also been accompanied by volcanic tremor in the seismic signals, Sernageomin reported. Ash emissions have been occurring from from several vents at and near the summit of the volcano, the most intense ones originating from the crater of the cinder cone on the 1961 lava dome.
Aerial images of Calbuco showing the effects of pyr
The volcano has so far stayed calm, but the alert level remains at red because another explosion could occur. A major problem in this situation seems to be that eruptions such as the recent one are likely to remain something impossible to predict - at least in some cases. ...more
It seems that the eruption on Wednesday evening was only preceded by 15 minutes (!) of an intense intense earthquake swarm that could reasonably have been served as a clear warning sign. [less]
The 21 y-o mountaineer who was missing and feared victim of the eruption has survived and has been rescued, fortunately. Together with a small group of friends, he was on excursion on the mountain when the eruption occurred last night. ...more
During their escape, he decided to stay behind because of cramps and then lost his way, forced to spend the night in the forest, until he could make phone contact with his family this morning. [less]
Sub-plinian eruption of Calbuco this morning (image: C.I.M.A.T / facebook)
The violent eruption of the volcano that had started at 01:00 local time this morning lasted about 6 hours and gradually waned. However, a third explosion in the near future remains a possibility. ...more
A 20 km access exclusion zone around the volcano remains in place and the alert status is kept at maximum (red). During the most intense phase, an impressive lava fountain could be seen jetting from the vent and the eruption column rose to more than 15 km altitude. An ash plume quickly drifted north, northeast and east into Argentina. Ballistic incandescent bombs were ejected to distances of up to 5 km.
Effects of ash fall from Calbuco (CIMAT / facebook)
Eruption plume from Calbuco on 22 April (source: Fusion Terrestre / facebook)
A major explosive eruption started at the volcano yesterday afternoon (20:45 GMT). VAAC Buenos Aires reported an ash plume to 30,000 ft (10 km) altitude. ...more
The eruption started at 18:05 local time and came with little warning signs apparently. Residents in a radius of 20 km around the volcano are being evacuated. As the ash plume quickly drifted northeast towards Argentinia's Bariloche region, the Bariloche airport was closed. According to Sernageomin, the eruption stopped already a few hours after. Aviation color code was raised to red as a warning to aircraft to avoid the area. [less]
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List and map of all volcanoes in Africa. Most volcanoes are located in the Great Rift Valley, but there are more.
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