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Topics: Volcanology glossary | Earthquake glossary

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Dacht-i-Navar (Volcano)

Dacht-i-Navar volcano is a group of 15 lava domes in west-central Afghanistan SW of Kabul. Their age is unknown, but it is speculated that they have erupted less than 10,000 years ago and should be considered potentially active. The lava domes are trachyandesitic in composition and located along the southern margin of Dacht-i-Navar.

dacite (Volcanology)

Dacite is an igneous, volcanic rock with a high iron content found at many lava-domes. -> See whole entry

Daikoku (Volcano)

Daikoku is a sumbarine volcano with a conical summit in the Japanese Volcano Islands chain. It sits on an elongated E-W-trending ridge SE of Eifuku submarine volcano and rises to within 323 m of the sea surface. It has a crater with a black pool of liquid sulfur discovered in 2006. Daikoku submarine volcano is one of about a dozen submarine volcanoes displaying hydrothermal activity in the southern part of the Izu-Marianas chain. -> See whole entry

Daisetsu (Volcano)

Daisetsu (also spelled Taisetsu) volcano is a group of 8 stratovolcanoes, lava domes and a small 2 km wide caldera in the Daisetsu-zan National Park (the roof of Hokkaido) in central Hokkaido. Asahi (旭岳 Asahi-dake) volcano is the highest peak of the volcanic complex and the highest mountain in Hokkaido. No historical eruptions are known from Daisetsu, although the last eruption must have taken place in or after 1739 AD. At present, there are fumaroles and sulfur was mined at Asahi-dake. Daisetsu-zan National Park is the largest national park of Japan covering 230,000 ha. The park stretches from Mt. Torashiumu to the Tokachi Mountains. It is known for its hot springs, which can be found at Sounkyou, Yukomanbetsu, Tenninkyou, Nukabira, Shirogane, Shikaribetsu and Tomuraushi. -> See whole entry

Dakataua (Volcano)

Dakataua volcano is a large caldera on the northern end of Willaumez Peninsula, New Britain. The elliptical caldera, 13.5 km E-W and 10.5 km N-S, is one of New Britain's most impressive volcanoes. The caldera contains the 12 km wide horseshoe-shaped Lake Dakataua which is at only 50 m above sea level. The Dakataua caldera formed during probably several Plinian eruptions. The last one occurred about 1150 years ago, and was followed by at least 5 subplinian to vulcanian explosions. The highest point of the volcanic complex is Mt Makalia (350m), a small andesitic stratovolcano (or large cinder cone) that formed after the caldera. Together with other post-caldera cones and explosion craters aligned on a N-S line, they form a large peninsula of the lake. The last activity from the volcano was from Makalia in the lat 19th century. At present, there is fumarolic activity occurs at the summit of Makalia and warm springs are found in the lake at the base of the mountain. -> See whole entry

Dalaffilla (Volcano)

Stratovolcano in the Erta Ale range (Ethiopia) which started a major effusive eruption on Nov 4, 2008 - one of the largest effusive eruptions in Africa during historic times. -> See whole entry

Dallol (Volcano)

The Dallol volcano, or rather the Dallol hydrothermal field is located in a remote part of the northern Danakil Depression in NE Ethiopia. It is the lowest known sub-aerial volcanic area in the world. Dallol is one of the world's most spectacular landscape: a vast area of uplifted thick salt deposits affected by intense fumarolic activity, probably caused by an active volcanic system beneath several kilometers of evaporation salt deposits. Dallol is said to be the hottest place on the planet, with average annual temperatures well above 30 deg C. The area commonly referred to Dallol volcano contains the approx. 1.5 x 3 km wide Dallol "mountain" (rising about 50 m above the great salt lake) near the border with Eritrea, and nearby warm springs including the Yellow Lake, the Black Mountain with the Blue Lake, said to be an explosion crater from a hydrothermal eruption in 1926. Dallol is famous for its hot brine, and multicolored white, pink, red, yellow, green, gray and black salt deposits, hot springs and miniature geysers. These bizarre structures form in a complex interaction of solution and recrystallization processes driven by hydrothermal waters and rapid evaporation. -> See whole entry

Damavand (Volcano)

Damavand volcano is a majestic stratovolcano located 70 km NE of Tehran and 70 km south of the Caspian Sea. Mt Damavand is the highest peak in the Middle East and the second highest volcano in Asia (after Kunlun volcano in Tibet). Damavand last erupted about 7,300 years ago. There are no historical eruptions, but fumaroles at the summit crater suggest that the volcano is still active. -> See whole entry

Danau (Volcano)

The Danau caldera at the western end of Java Island belongs to the Gunung Karang volcano. It was formed in Pleistocene (+- 2,5 mil. years ago). 10000 years ago two andesitic to basaltic volcanoes erupted and built up a stratovolcano until 1778m altitude (Karang volcano). Some active hydrothermal systems with hot springs are the today´s last sign of activity. -> See whole entry

Dar-Alages (Volcano)

A group of six cinder and lava cones of Pleistocene-to-Holocene age is located in southern Armenia on the western slopes of the Vardeniss volcanic ridge, south of Lake Sevan. -> See whole entry

Datong (Volcano)

The Datong volcanoes (Datong-Fengzen volcanic field) are located 3 km northeast of Datong City at Xigelaoshan in North China west of Beijing. The volcanic field contains approx. 80 cinder cones and small lava domes. The most notable cones are Heishan (1,422 meters above sea level), Jinshan (1,368 meters above sea level), Langwoshan (1,028 meters above sea level) and Gelaoshan (1,276 meters above sea level). The well-preserved Jinshan cone is a major tourist attraction of the area. There are unconfirmed records of historic eruptions around 450 AD. -> See whole entry

debris avalanche (Volcanology)

A sudden collapse of volcanic material from an unstable side of a volcano. Debris avalanches are a particularly violent type of pyroclastic flows (in its broader meaning).

Deception Island (Volcano)

Deception Island is a 14 km wide, ring-shaped volcanic island at the south-western end of the South Shetland Islands, NE of Graham Land Peninsul. It is one of the most well-known active volcanoes of the Antarctic region. Deception Island is a sea-filled caldera with a diameter of 7 km with a narrow entry (Neptunes Bellows) on the SE side. The island forms a natural harbour and was a popular base for whaling ships in the 19th century. There were huts and shelters and, later, scientific observatory stations, which were damaged during the last eruptions in 1967 and 1969. -> See whole entry

Demon (Volcano)

Demon is a stratovolcano on the extreme northern tip of Iturup Island, Kuriles. The volcano has had no recent eruptions, but might still be active. It was built during the past 10,000 years inside a glacial valley 3 km east of the older eroded Kamui volcano. Damon's summit has a 1.5-km-wide crater open to the east.

Dempo (Volcano)

Derbi-Tayga (Volcano)

Derbi-Tayga is a 2605-m-high glacially eroded shield volcano in the Azas Plateau in southeastern Russia near Lak Baikal.

Descabezado Grande (Volcano)

Descabezado Grande ("the big decapitated") volcano in central Chile is an active stratovolocano with a 1.4 km wide ice-filled summit crater, a basal diameter of 11 km and a volume of 30 cubic km. The only historical eruption was in 1932, when a lateral crater formed on the upper NNE, shortly after the end of the major 1932 eruption from nearby Quizapu volcano on the north flank of Cerro Azul. At the moment the volcano is dormant, but the NE corner of the caldera has active fumaroles. -> See whole entry

Devils Garden (Volcano)

Devils Garden volcanic field in central Oregon, east of the Cascade Range, is the NW-most of a group of 3 young basaltic lava fields SE of Newberry volcano. It covers 117 sq km and consists of fissure vents and lava flows. -> See whole entry

Devis Lake (Volcano)

Davis Lake area in Oregon, USA, is a volcanic field with 3 cinder cones and lava flows of three cinder cones and associated lava flows. -> See whole entry

Dgida Basin (Volcano)

Dgida volcano (Dgida Basin, Dgida-Tunkin volcanic field) is a group of cinder cones in southeastern Russia 23 km from the border with Mongolia and 125 km SW of Lake Baikal. It belongs to the Tunkin Depression volcanic field and is considered to be related to an intraplate hot spot.

Diamond Craters (Volcano)

Diamond Craters is a 60 sq km volcanic field in SE Oregon, 11 km east of highway 205 and 64 km (40 miles) southeast of the town of Burns. It consists of cinder cones, maars (explosion craters) and lava flows. Diamond Craters were named after the Diamond Ranch, established in the area by the pioneer Mace McCoy and his partner Albert Hugh Robie. The ranch used a diamond-shaped brand, hence the name. -> See whole entry

Didicas (Volcano)

Didicas volcano is a small volcanic island 22 km NE of Camiguin Island, 60 km off the northern coast of Luzon, Philippines. Until 1952, it was a submarine volcano that had previously formed temporary islands during eruptions. In the eruption of 1952 the submarine volcano formed a new lava dome that surfaced above sea level and has become now a permanent new island. -> See whole entry

Dieng (Volcano)

The Dieng volcanic complex forms a 6x14km large highland plateau in Central Java west of Yogyakarta. It consists of overlapping volcanoes and a large caldera, lava domes, cones, and explosion craters many of which are filled by lakes. It is known for its varied colorful volcanic scenery and hydrothermal activity, and a sacred area to the Javanese people; some of the oldest Hindu temples of Java are found here, dating back to the 8th century AD. -> See whole entry

diorite (Volcanology)

Diorite is an intrusive igneous rock of intermediate silica content (53-63%). It is the equivalent of its extrusive (volcanic) counterpart andesite. -> See whole entry

Dobu (Dawson Strait Group) (Volcano)

Dobu is one of 3 volcanic centres of the Dawson Strait Group. It forms the small Dobu Island SE of Fergusson Island. Dobu volcano consists of a composite cone with a summit crater and a small satellite cone. It, too, has produced obsidian lava flows. -> See whole entry

Doma Peaks (Volcano)

Doma Peaks is an andesitic stratovolcano located at the western end of a volcanic chain in the highlands of New Guinea. The volcano has 2 westward facing escarpments which are probably the result of landslides. It has a main cater breached towards the west by the Arua River, flank vents southwest of the summit, and a lava field on the northeastern flank. The age of the last eruption is unknown. At present, there is geothermal activity at the headwaters of the Arua and Tebi Rivers.

Domuyo (Volcano)

Volcán Domuyo is a stratovolcano in NW Argentinia and perhaps still an active one. It has a 15-km wide caldera, within which at least 14 dacitic lava domes and other eruptive centers were constructed. Other 5 vents are outside the caldera, the largest being the Volcán Chanque-Mallín volcano on the ESE flank. Chanque-Mallín itself is truncated by a 4-km-wide caldera and contains a new lava dome.

Doña Juana (Volcano)

Doña Juana is a forested stratovolcano 56 km NE of Galeras volcano. The volcano has 2 calderas, the younger of which contains the active summit cone. The only historic eruption started in 1897 and lasted almost 10 years, during which the youngest of several summit lava dome was built. Large pyroclastic flows were produced during this eruption. -> See whole entry

Doni Wijanyanto ()

Close friend of Tom, Indonesian volcanologist Doni Wijanyanto, works for the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia and guides groups for VolcanoDiscovery. -> See whole entry

Dotsero (Volcano)

The small Dotsero maar in NW Colorado, 2 km NE of the small town Dotsero, near the junction of the Colorado and Eagle Rivers west of the Gore Range, is the only volcano in Colorado that has had activity in the past 10,000 years. It erupted ca. 4000 years ago, producing an explosion crater (maar), lahars, and a 3 km long lava flow. The crater of Dotsero is 700 m in diameter and 400 m deep with a flat floor covered by debris. It exposes a lithic-rich pyroclastic deposit, a strombolian scoria-fall deposit, lahars deposits, and a lava flow. -> See whole entry

Doyo (Volcano)

Doyo Seamount is the southernmost of the 7 Shichiyo Seamounts, named for the 7 days of the week. Doyo ("Saturday") is a basaltic-andesite submarine caldera that rises 2340 m from the sea floor to within 860 m of the sea surface. It has a large horseshoe-shaped 3 x 10 km wide summit caldera. Major hydrothermal activity was observed in July 1990, and the volcano was reclassified as active by the Japan Meteorological Agency.

Dubbi (Volcano)

Dubbi volcano in Eritrea is a large volcanic massif rising 1625 m above the the western shore of the Red Sea. It is located in the Afar triangle south of the crystalline basement rocks in the Danakil Alps east of the Danakil depression and east of the Erta Ale range. The two most-recent eruptive centers are fissure systems that extend NW-SE and NNE-SSW. The former produced lava flows that reached the Red Sea in 1400 AD. The second created 19 small craters at the summit in 1861. Ash fell more than 300 km from the volcano. Two villages were destroyed and more than 100 persons were killed during Africa's largest eruption in historical time. Lava flows from the 1861 eruption traveled as far as 22 km and reached the coast. An eruption on 12 June 2011 from neighboring Nabro was originally believed to be from Dubbi. -> See whole entry

Dukono volcano (Volcano)

Durango (Volcano)

Durango volcano is a volcanic field in north-central Mexico north of the city of Durango, located at the NW end of the Meseta Central and the eastern edge of the Sierra Madre Occidental. The volcanic field covers 2100 sq km and contains about 100 maars, cinder cones and lava flows. Young activity occurred from the La Breña cone only a few thousand years ago. -> See whole entry


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